Journal of Statistical Physics

, Volume 67, Issue 3–4, pp 675–780 | Cite as

Chaotic polaronic and bipolaronic states in the adiabatic Holstein model

  • Serge Aubry
  • Gilles Abramovici
  • Jean -Luc Raimbault


A rigorous proof for the existence of bipolaronic states is given for the adiabatic Holstein model for any lattice at any dimension, periodic or not, and for an arbitrary band filling, provided that the electron-phonon coupling (in dimensionless units) is large enough. The existence of mixed polaronic-bipolaronic states is also proven, but for larger electron-phonon coupling. These states consist of arbitrary distributions of bipolarons (or of bipolarons and polarons) localized in real space which can be simply labeled by pseudospin configurations as for a lattice gas model. The theory not only applies to periodic crystals, but also to quasicrystals, amorphous structures, polymer network, etc.

When these bipolaronic and mixed polaronic-bipolaronic states exist, it is proven that: (1) These bipolaronic (and mixed polaronic-bipolaronic) states exhibit a nonzero phonon gap with a nonvanishing lower bound and an electronic gap at the Fermi energy. (2) These structures are insulating. The perturbation generated by any local change in the bipolaronic or polaronic distribution or by any charged impurity or defect decays exponentially at long distance. (3) These bipolaronic (and mixed polaronic-bipolaronic) states persist for any uniform magnetic field. (4) For large enough electron-phonon coupling, the ground state of the extended adiabatic Holstein model is a bipolaronic state when there is no uniform magnetic field or when it is small enough. It becomes a mixed polaronic-bipolaronic state for large enough magnetic field (note that the mixed polaronic-bipolaronic states are magnetic).

In one-dimensional models, the ground state is an incommensurate (or commensurate) charge density wave (CDW) as predicted by Peierls (this result is not rigorous, but has been confirmed numerically). It is proven that the ground state becomes a “bipolaronic charge density wave” (BCDW) at large enough electron-phonon coupling. The existence of a transition by breaking of analyticity (TBA), which was numerically observed as a function of the electron-phonon coupling, is then confirmed. In that case, the shape of the effective bipolaron can be numerically calculated. It is observed that its size diverges at the TBA. The physical properties of BCDWs are rather different from those predicted by standard charge density wave theory. Bipolaronic charge density waves can also exist in models which are not only low-dimensional, but purely two- or three-dimensional.

The technique for proving these theorems is an application of the concept of anti-integrability initially developed for Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It consists in proving that the eigenstates of the (trivial) Hamiltonian (called antiintegrable) obtained by canceling all electronic and lattice kinetic terms survive as a uniformly continuous function of the electronic kinetic energy terms in the Hamiltonian up to a certain threshold.

Key words

Chaos anti-integrability bipolaron polaron charge density wave breaking of analyticity 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serge Aubry
    • 1
  • Gilles Abramovici
    • 1
  • Jean -Luc Raimbault
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (Laboratoire commun CEA-CNRS)CEN SaclayGif-sur-Yvette CédexFrance

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