Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 46, Issue 5–6, pp 365–381 | Cite as

Transient oxidation in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys: A Raman-scattering study

  • D. Renusch
  • B. Veal
  • K. Natesan
  • M. Grimsditch


Using Raman scattering we have investigated the oxidation, in air, of the Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels Fe-25Cr-20Ni, Fe-25Cr-20Ni-3Zr, and Fe-24Cr-3Zr (wt.%) as a function of temperature in the range 300 to 1000°C. The Raman technique is very sensitive to, and provides a clear identification of, the oxides Fe2O3 and Cr2O3. However, the technique is insensitive to NiO, FeO, and does not give a clear identification of spinels. The Fe−Cr−Ni alloys form chromia scales at temperatures greater than ∼800°C. At lower oxidation temperatures, transient phases are observed. With a 1-h heat treatment at 300°C, we observe the formation of an unidentified scale; we speculate that it is either amorphous or consists of disordered spinel(s). Near 400°C we begin to observe hematite (Fe2O3). The intensity of the Fe2O3 signal increases with temperature to ∼600°C and then decreases, being largely replaced by the signal from Cr2O3. The thickness of the Cr2O3 scale increases with temperature up to ∼1000°C above which spallation becomes apparent. Spinel phases also apparently persist in the scale to 1000°C.

Key Words

oxidation steel Raman scale transient oxides 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Renusch
    • 1
  • B. Veal
    • 1
  • K. Natesan
    • 1
  • M. Grimsditch
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Science Division and Energy Technology DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonne

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