Sex differences in higher functioning people with autism

  • John D. McLennan
  • Catherine Lord
  • Eric Schopler

Abstract

Though a sex difference in the incidence of autism has frequently been reported, few studies have considered sex differences in the severity of features associated with autism. The Autism Diagnostic Interview was used to assess the difference between a group of 21 females and 21 males with autism with equivalent chronological nonverbal IQ greater than 60. Males were rated to be more severely autistic than females on several measures of early social development, but not in any other areas. Results are discussed in relationship to hypotheses based on sex differences in other populations.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baird, T. D., & August, G. J. (1985). Familial heterogeneity in infantile autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 315–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bolton, P., & Rutter, M. (1990). Genetic influences in autism.International Review of Psychiatry, 2, 67–80.Google Scholar
  3. Bryson, S. E., Clark, B. S., & Smith, T. M. (1988). First report of a Canadian epidemiological study of autistic syndromes.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 29, 433–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dilavore, P., & Lord, C. (1991, October).Sex differences in the familial transmission of autism spectrum disorders. Poster presented at the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  5. Hollingshead, A., & Redlich, F. (1958).Social class and mental illness. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Krug, D. A., Arick, J., & almond, P. (1980). Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 221–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Le Couteur, A., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Rios, P., Robertson, S., Holdgrafer, M., & McLennan, J. D. (1989). Autism Diagnostic Interview: A semistructured interview for parents and caregivers of autistic persons.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 363–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lord, C., Goode, S., Rutter, M., & Schopler, E. (1989). Sex differences in autism: Research news.International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 12, 113–114.Google Scholar
  9. Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1985). Differences in sex ratios in autism as a function of measured intelligence.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 185–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1987). Neurobiological implications of sex differences in autism. In E. Schopler & G. Mesibov (Eds.),Neurobiological issues in autism (pp. 191–211). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  11. Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revecki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lotter, V. (1966). Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children. I. Prevalence.Social Psychiatry, 1966, 124–137.Google Scholar
  13. Raven, J. C. (1960).Guide to using the standard progressive matrices. London: H. K. Lewis.Google Scholar
  14. Rutter, M., Le Conteur, A., & Lord, C. (in press). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R).Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.Google Scholar
  15. Rutter, M., & Lockyer, L. (1967). A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis. I: Description of sample.British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1169–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Schopler, E., & Reichler, R. (1979).Individualized assessment and treatment for autistic and developmentally disabled children. Vol. 1: Psychoeducation Profile. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  17. Schopler, E., Reichler, R., & Renner, B. R. (1986).The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for diagnostic screening and classification of autism. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  18. Spence, M. A., Ritvo, E. R., Marazita, M. L., Funderburk, S. J., Sparkes, R. S., & Freeman, B. J. (1985). Gene mapping studies with the syndrome of autism.Behavior Genetics, 15, 1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Szatmari, P., & Jones, M. B. (1991). IQ and the genetics of autism.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 897–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Treffert, D. A. (1970). Epidemiology of infantile autism.Archives of General Psychiatry, 22, 431–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Tsai, L., Stewart, M. A., & August, G. (1981). Implications of sex differences in the familial transmission of infantile autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 165–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Tsai, L., & Beisler, J. M. (1983). The development of sex differences in infantile autism.British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 373–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Volkmar, F., & Szatmari, P. (1991, October).Sex differences in pervasive developmental disorders. Paper presented at the conference of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  24. Wing, L. (1981). Sex ratios in early childhood autism and related conditions.Psychiatry Research, 5, 129–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. World Health Organization. (1987).ICD-10 1986 draft of chapter 5 categories F00-F99: Mental, behavioral and developmental disorders. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. McLennan
    • 1
  • Catherine Lord
    • 1
  • Eric Schopler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of North CarolinaChapel Hill
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryThe University of ChicagoChicago

Personalised recommendations