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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 11, Issue 8, pp 1093–1113 | Cite as

Constituents of osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

  • B. V. Burger
  • Zenda Munro
  • Marina Röth
  • H. S. C. Spies
  • Verona Truter
  • H. Geertsema
  • A. Habich
Article

Abstract

The defensive osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of the citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was found to contain methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, α-pinene, myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, β-caryophyllene, (E)-β-farnesene, and germacrene-A, as well as a further number of unidentified sesquiterpenoid constituents. The presence of germacrene-A in the secretion was inferred from the formation of β-elemene under certain GC conditions. Larvae of the second, third, and fourth instars produce qualitatively similar secretions. Remarkable quantitative differences were found between the secretions of individual larvae. These variations could not be correlated with the diet on which the larvae were fed, their sex, instar, or color form. However, in a number of larvae the two prongs of the osmeterium were found to produce quantitatively different secretions.

Key words

Papilio demodocus Lepidoptera Papilionidae defensive secretion osmeterial secretion monoterpenes sesquiterpenes capillary GC injector programing GC-MS [13C]NMR 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. V. Burger
    • 1
  • Zenda Munro
    • 1
  • Marina Röth
    • 1
  • H. S. C. Spies
    • 1
  • Verona Truter
    • 1
  • H. Geertsema
    • 2
  • A. Habich
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of StellenboschStellenboschSouth Africa
  2. 2.Cape TechnikonCape TownSouth Africa
  3. 3.Kantonsschule RämibühlZürichSwitzerland

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