Advertisement

Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 513–531 | Cite as

Analysis of chemical signals in a primate species (Saguinus fuscicollis): Use of behavioral, chemical, and pattern recognition methods

  • A. M. Belcher
  • A. B. SmithIII
  • P. C. Jurs
  • B. Lavine
  • G. Epple
Article

Abstract

Scent marking with specialized skin glands is a common behavior in the tamarin,Saguinus fuscicollis. The scent marks identify species, subspecies, gender, and individual, and they also contain information on the social position and hormonal condition of an animal. The marks are chemically complex, containing a large number of compounds. Analysis by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has identified 16 major components (squalene and 15 esters of butyric acid). These compounds are present in the marks of males and females of two subspecies,Saguinus f. fuscicollis andSaguinus f. illigeri. Application of computerized pattern recognition techniques has shown that concentration patterns of some of the butyrates are diagnostic of the two subspecies while concentration patterns of other butyrates are diagnostic of males and females regardless of subspecies. Behavioral studies have shown that the concentration patterns of butyrates and squalene alone do not encode information on subspecies and gender. It is, however, likely that this information is partially encoded by these specific butyrate-squalene concentration patterns but that yet unidentified compounds in the scent marks serve as necessary synergists.

Key words

Chemical communication scent marking pattern recognition Saguinus fuscicollis GC-MS primate tamarin skin secretions n-butyrate esters concentration profiles 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albone, E.S. 1984. Mammalian Semiochemistry. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Beauchamp, G.K., Doty, R.L., Moulton, D.G., andMugford, R.A. 1976. The pheromone concept in mammalian chemical communication: A brief critique, pp. 143–160,in R.L. Doty, (ed.). Mammalian Olfaction, Reproductive Processes, and Behavior. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Brownlee, R.G., Silverstein, R.M., Müllen-Schwarze, D., andSinger, A.G. 1969. Isolation, identification and function of the chief component of the male tarsal scent in black-tailed deer.Nature 221:284.Google Scholar
  4. Epple, G. 1971. Discrimination of the odor of males and females by the marmosetSaguinus fuscicollis illigeri.Proc. 3rd Int. Congr. Primatol. 3:166–171.Google Scholar
  5. Epple, G. 1973. The role of pheromones in the social communication of marmoset monkeys (Callithricidae).J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 19:447.Google Scholar
  6. Epple, G. 1974a. Primate pheromones, p. 366,in M.C. Birch (ed.). Pheromones. American Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Epple, G. 1974b. Pheromones in primate reproduction and social behavior, p. 131,in W. Montagna, and W.A. Sadler (eds.). Reproductive Behavior. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Epple, G. 1976. Chemical communication and reproductive processes in nonhuman primates, pp. 257–282,in R. Doty (ed.). Mammalian Olfaction, Reproductive Processes, and Behavior. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Epple, G. 1978. Studies on the nature of chemical signals in scent marks and urine ofSaguinus fuscicollis (Callitrichidae, Primates).J. Chem. Ecol. 4:383.Google Scholar
  10. Epple, G. 1979. Gonadal control of male scent in the tamarinSaguinus fuscicollis (Callitrichidae, Primates).Chem. Senses Flavor 4:15.Google Scholar
  11. Epple, G. 1985. The primates I: Order Anthropoidea, p. 739,in R.E. Brown and D.W. MacDonald (eds.). Social Odours in Mammals, Vol. 2, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Epple, G. 1986. Comunication by chemical signals,in G. Mitchell (ed.). Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. II, Behavior and Ecology. Alan R. Liss, New York. In Press.Google Scholar
  13. Epple, G., andMoulton, D.G. 1978. Structural organization and communicatory functions of olfaction in nonhuman primates, p. 1,in C.R. Noback (ed.). Sensory Systems of Primates. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Epple, G., Golob, N.F., andSmith, A.B., III. 1979. Odor communication in the tamarinSaguinus fuscicollis. Behavioral and chemical studies, p. 117,in FJ. Ritter (ed.). Chemical Ecology: Odour Communication in Animals. Elsevier/North Holland, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Epple, G., Alveario, M.C., Golob, N. andSmith, A.B., III. 1980. Relative attractiveness and stability related to the age of the scent marks ofSaguinus fuscicollis (Callitrichidae, Primates).J. Chem. Ecol. 6:735.Google Scholar
  16. Golob, N.F., Yarger, R.G., andSmith, A.B., III. 1979. Primate chemical communication, Part III, Synthesis of the major volatile constituents of the marmoset (Saguinus fuscicollis) scent mark.J. Chem. Ecol. 5:543.Google Scholar
  17. Halpin, Z.T. 1974. Individual differences in the biological odors of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).Behav. Biol 11:253–259.Google Scholar
  18. Jackson, B.B. 1983. Multivariant Data Analysis—An Introduction. Richard O. Irwin, Inc., Homewood, Illinois.Google Scholar
  19. Johnston. R.E. 1983. Chemical signals and reproductive behavior, p. 3,in J.G. Vandenberg (ed.). Pheromones and Reproduction in Mammals. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Jurs, P.C., andIsenhour, T.L. 1975. Chemical Applications of Pattern Recognition. Wiley-In- terscience, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Keverne, E.B. 1983. Chemical communication in primate reproduction, p. 79,in J.G. Vandenbergh (ed.). Pheromones and Reproduction in Mammals. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Maier, W.C. 1981. Nasal structures in Old and New World primates, pp. 219–241,in R.L. Coichon, and A.B. Chiarelli (eds.). Evolutionary Biology of the New World Monkeys. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Perkins, E.M. 1966. The skin of the black-collared tamarin (Tamarinus nigricollis).Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 25:41.Google Scholar
  24. Preti, G., Smith, A.B., III, andBeauchamp, G.K. 1977. Chemical and behavioral complexity in mammalian chemical communication systems: Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), marmosets (Saguinus fuscicollis), and humans (Homo sapiens), p. 95,in D. Müller-Schwarze, and M. Mozell (eds.). Chemical Signals in Vertebrates. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Schilling, A. 1979. Olfactory communication in prosimians, p. 461,in G.A. Doyle and R.D. Martin (eds.). The Study of Prosimian Behavior. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Siegel, S. 1956. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Smith, A.B., III, Yarger, R.G., andEpple, G. 1976. The major volatile constituents of the marmoset (Saguinus fuscicollis) scent mark.Tetrahedron Lett. 13:983.Google Scholar
  28. Smith, A.B., III, Belcher, A.M., Epple, G., Jurs, P.C., andLavine, B. 1985. Computerized pattern recognition: A new technique for the analysis of chemical communication.Science 228:175.Google Scholar
  29. Wold, S. 1976.Pattern Recognition 8:127.Google Scholar
  30. Wysocki, C.J. 1979. Neurobehavioral evidence for the involvement of the vomeronasal system in mammalian reproduction.Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 3:301.Google Scholar
  31. Yarger, R.G., Smith, A.B., III, Preti, G., andEpple, G. 1977. The major volatile constituents of the scent mark of a South American primate,Saguinus fuscicollis, Callithricidae.J. Chem. Ecol. 3:45.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Belcher
    • 1
  • A. B. SmithIII
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. C. Jurs
    • 3
  • B. Lavine
    • 3
  • G. Epple
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.The Monell Chemical Senses CenterWest Germany
  2. 2.The Department of ChemistryUniversity of PennsylvaniaWest Germany
  3. 3.The Department of ChemistryPennsylvania State UniversityWest Germany
  4. 4.German Primate CenterGöttingenWest Germany

Personalised recommendations