Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 1087–1098 | Cite as

Effect of juvenile hormone analog, fenoxycarb, on pheromone production byIps paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

  • N. -M. Chen
  • J. H. Borden
  • H. D. PierceJr.


Topical application of the juvenile hormone analog, fenoxycarb, in acetone induced newly emerged male California five-spined ips,Ips paraconfusus Lanier, to become attractive to females, as measured by positive responses to male abdominal extracts in a laboratory bioassay. Two pheromones, ipsdienol and ipsenol, were detected by gas chromatography in the abdominal extracts of fenoxycarb-treated males. Pheromone production was minimal at a dose of 0.1 μg/insect of fenoxycarb, maximal at 10 μg, and was reduced to unmeasurable amounts at a dose of 100 μg. In comparison, peak production of pheromones was induced at a dose of 0.1 μg/insect of natural juvenile hormone (JH III). Treatment with 10 μg of fenoxycarb resulted in the occurrence of pheromones 12 hr after exposure, maximal pheromone content between 16 and 20 hr, and undetectable amounts after 36 hr. The demonstration that fenoxycarb is an active juvenile hormone analog for a bark beetle suggests that it may have practical utility in managing these insects.

Key words

Juvenile hormone analog juvenile hormone JH III,Ips paraconfusus Coleoptera Scolytidae bark beetles aggregation pheromones pheromones ipsenol ipsdienol 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anonymous. 1983, Ro 13-5223. Technical data sheet. Dr. R. Maag Ltd., CH-8157. Maag Technical Bulletin, Dielsdorf, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, W.J., andBarth, R.H., Jr. 1970. Quantitative effects of juvenile hormone on reproduction in the cockroachByrsotria fumigata.J. Insect Physiol. 16:2303–2313.Google Scholar
  3. Borden, J.H. 1967. Factors influencing the response ofIps confusus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to male attractant.Can. Entomol. 99:1164–1193.Google Scholar
  4. Borden, J.H. 1982. Aggregation pheromones, pp. 74–139,in J.B. Mitton and K.B. Sturgeon (eds.). Bark Beetles in North American Conifers: Ecology and Evolution. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  5. Borden, J.H. 1985. Aggregation pheromones, pp. 275–285,in G.A. Kerkut and L.I. Gilbert (eds.). Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. IX. Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  6. Borden, J.H., Nair, K.K., andSlater, C.E. 1969. Synthetic juvenile hormone: Induction of sex pheromone production inIps confusus.Science 166:1626–1627.Google Scholar
  7. Bridges, J.R. 1982. Effects of juvenile hormone on pheromone synthesis inDendroctonus frontalis.Environ. Entomol. 11:417–420.Google Scholar
  8. Byers, J.A. 1981. Pheromone biosynthesis in the bark beetle,Ips paraconfusus, during feeding or exposure to vapours of host plant precursors.Insect Biochem. 11:563–569.Google Scholar
  9. Conn, J.E. 1981. Pheromone production and control mechanisms inDendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins. MSc thesis. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C., Canada.Google Scholar
  10. Dorn, S., Frischkencht, M.L., Martinez, V., Zurflüh, R., andFischer, U. 1981. A novel nonneurotoxic insecticide with a broad activity spectrum.Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenschutz 88:269–275.Google Scholar
  11. Edwards, J.P., andShort, J.E. 1984. Evaluation of three compounds with insect juvenile hormone activity as grain protectants against insecticide-susceptible and resistant strains ofSitophilus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).J. Stored Prod. Res. 20:11–15.Google Scholar
  12. Fockler, C.E., andBorden, J.H. 1973. Mating activity and ovariole development ofTrypodendron lineatum: Effect of a juvenile hormone analogue.Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 66:509–512.Google Scholar
  13. Marring, C.M. 1978. Aggregation pheromones of the European fir engraver beetlesPityokteines curvidens, P. spinidens andP. vorontzovi and the role of juvenile hormone in pheromone biosynthesis.Z. Angew. Entomol. 85:281–317.Google Scholar
  14. Hedin, P.A., Lindig, O.H., andWiygul, G. 1982. Enhancement of boll weevilAnthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pheromone biosynthesis with JH III.Experientia 38:375–376.Google Scholar
  15. Hughes, P.R. 1975. Pheromone ofDendroctonus: origin of α-pinene oxidation products present in emergent adults.J. Insect Physiol. 21:687–691.Google Scholar
  16. Hughes, P.R., andRenwick, J.A.A. 1977a. Neural and hormonal control of pheromone biosynthesis in the bark beetle,Ips paraconfusus.Physiol. Entomol. 2:117–123.Google Scholar
  17. Hughes, P.R., andRenwick, J.A.A. 1977b. Hormonal and host factors stimulating pheromone synthesis in the female western pine beetle,Dendroctonus brevicomis.Physiol. Entomol. 2:289–292.Google Scholar
  18. Karrer, F., andFarooq, S. 1981. Some insect growth regulators with aromatic rings: Their synthesis and biological properties, pp. 289–302,in F. Sehnal, A. Zabza, J.J. Menn, and B. Cymborowski (eds.). Regulation of Insect Development and Behaviour. Wroclaw Technical University Press, Wroclaw, Poland.Google Scholar
  19. Kramer, K.J., Beeman, R.W., andHenricks, L.H. 1981. Activity of Ro 13-5223 and Ro 13-7744 against stored product insects.J. Econ. Entomol. 74:678–680.Google Scholar
  20. Masner, P., Dorn, S., Vogel, W., Kalin, M., Graf, O., andGünthart, E. 1981. Types of responses of insects to a new IGR and to proven standards, pp. 808–818,in F. Sehnal, A. Zabza, J.J. Menn, and B. Cymborowski (eds.). Regulation of Insect Development and Behaviour. Wroclaw Technical University Press, Wroclaw, Poland.Google Scholar
  21. Menon, M., andNair, K.K. 1972. Sex pheromone production and reproductive behaviour in gamma-irradiatedTenebrio molitor.J. Insect Physiol. 18:1323–1331.Google Scholar
  22. Miller, D.R., andBorden, J.H. 1985. Life history and biology ofIps latidens (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).Can. Entomol. 117:859–871.Google Scholar
  23. Nijhout, H.F., andWilliams, C.M. 1974. Control of moulting and metamorphosis in the tobacco hornworm,Manduca sexta (L.): Cessation of juvenile hormone secretion as a trigger for pupation.J. Exp. Biol. 61:493–501.Google Scholar
  24. Parrella, M.P., Christie, G.D., andRobb, K.L. 1983. Compatibility of insect growth regulators andChrysocharis parksi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for the control ofLiriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae).J. Econ. Entomol. 76:949–951.Google Scholar
  25. Pitman, G. B., Kliefoth, R.A., andVité, J.P. 1965. Studies on the pheromone ofIps confusus (LeConte). II. Further observation on the site of production.Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 23:13–18.Google Scholar
  26. Reede, R.H. De, Groendijk, R.F., andWit, A.K.H. 1984. Field tests with insect growth regulators, epofenonane and fenoxycarb, in apple orchards against leafrollers and side-effects on some leafroller parasites.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 35:275–281.Google Scholar
  27. Reede, R.H. De, Alkema, P., andBlommers, L.H.M. 1985. The use of the insect growth regulators fenoxycarb and epofenonane against leafrollers in integrated pest management apple orchards.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 39:265–272.Google Scholar
  28. Renwick, J.A.A., Pitman, G.B., andVité, J.P. 1966. Detection of a volatile compound in hindguts of maleIps confusus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).Naturwissenschaften 53:83–84.Google Scholar
  29. Rountree, D.B., andBollenbacher, W.E. 1984. Juvenile hormone regulates ecdysone secretion through inhibition of PTTH release.Amer. Zool. 24:31A.Google Scholar
  30. Staal, G.B. 1975. Insect growth regulators with juvenile hormone activity.Annu. Rev. Entomol. 20:417–460.Google Scholar
  31. Stock, A.J., andBorden, J.H. 1983. Secondary attraction in the western balsam bark beetle,Dryocoetes confusus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).Can. Entomol. 115:539–550.Google Scholar
  32. Wood, D.L. 1961. Stridulation in the genusIps De Greer.Pan-Pacif. Entomol. 37:187–188.Google Scholar
  33. Wood, D.L., andBushing, R.W. 1963. The olfactory response ofIps confusus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to the secondary attraction in the laboratory.Can. Entomol. 95:1066–1078.Google Scholar
  34. Yagi, S., andFukaya, M. 1974. Juvenile hormone as a key factor regulating larval diapause of the rice stem borer,Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).Appl. Entomol. Zool. 9:247–255.Google Scholar
  35. Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. -M. Chen
    • 1
  • J. H. Borden
    • 1
  • H. D. PierceJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Pest Management, Department of Biological SciencesSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  2. 2.Department of ChemistrySimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations