Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 791–799 | Cite as

Antifouling agents from marine spongeLissodendoryx isodictyalis carter

  • Margaret A. Sears
  • Donald J. Gerhart
  • Dan Rittschof


The spongeLissodendoryx isodictyalis is an odorous, encrusting, blue-gray sponge found on subtidal flats in North Carolina waters. The strong odor ofL. isodictyalis, coupled with the observation that it is rarely overgrown by fouling organisms, suggested that this sponge may produce metabolites with potent antifouling activity. Ethyl acetate extracts ofL. isodictyalis inhibit larval settlement of the barnacleBalanus amphitrite in laboratory assays at 10 ng/ml. Barnacle settlement bioassays of isolated preparative TLC fractions show thatL. isodictyalis produces at least two pungently scented, antifouling agents with EC50 values of less than 85 μg/ml and less than 250 μg/ml, respectively. The most potent agent inhibits settlement at or below a concentration of 400 ng/ml and kills approximately 25 % of settlement-stage barnacle larvae at 400 μg/ml. The other agent causes 100% mortality of larvae at concentrations greater than 400 μg/ml and inhibits settlement at approximately 40 μg/ml. These metabolites ofL. isodictyalis may inhibit overgrowth of the sponge in nature.

Key words

Lissodendoryx isodictyalis Balanus amphtrite fouling antifouling agents marine sponge 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bakus, G.J., Targett, N.M., andSchulte, B. 1986. Chemical ecology of marine organisms: An overview.J. Chem. Ecol. 12(5):951–987.Google Scholar
  2. Faulkner, D.J. 1977. Some interesting aspects of marine natural products in chemistry.Tetrahedron 33:1421–1443.Google Scholar
  3. Faulkner 1984. Marine natural products: Metabolites of marine invertebrates.Nat. Prod. Rep. 1:551–598.Google Scholar
  4. Fenical, W. 1978. Diterpenoids, pp. 173–245,in P.J. Scheuer (ed.). Marine Natural Products, Vol. II. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Fenical, W. 1982. Natural products chemistry in the marine environment.Science 215:923–928.Google Scholar
  6. Gerhart, D.J., Rittschof, D., andMayo, S.W. 1988. Chemical ecology and the search for marine antifoulants: Studies of a predator-prey symbiosis.J. Chem. Ecol. 14(10): 1903–1915.Google Scholar
  7. Goad, L.J. 1978. The sterols of marine invertebrates: Composition, biosynthesis, and metabolism, pp. 75–172,in P.J. Scheuer (ed.). Marine Natural Products, Vol. II. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Keifer, P.A., Rinehart, K.L., andHooper, I.R. 1986. Renillafoulins, antifouling diterpenes from the sea pansyRenilla reniformis (Octocorallia).J. Org. Chem. 51:4450–4454.Google Scholar
  9. Laubenfels, 1947. Ecology of the sponges of a brackish water environment at Beaufort, N.C.Ecol. Monogr. 17(l):31–46.Google Scholar
  10. Rittschof, D., Branscomb, E.S., andCostlow, J.D. 1984. Settlement and behavior in relation to flow and surface in larval barnacles,Balanus amphitirte Darwin.J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 82:131–146.Google Scholar
  11. Rittschof, D., Hooper, I.R., Branscomb, E.S., andCostlow, J.D. 1985. Inhibition of barnacle settlement and behavior by natural products from whip corals,Leptogorgia virgulata (Lamarck, 1815).J. Chem. Ecol. 11:551–563.Google Scholar
  12. Rittschof, D., Hooper, I.R., andCostlow, J.D. 1986. Barnacle settlement inhibitors from sea pansies,Renilla reniformis.Bull. Mar. Sci. 39(2): 376–382.Google Scholar
  13. Sokal, R.R., andRohlf, R.J. (eds.). 1981. Biometry. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.Google Scholar
  14. Standing, J., Hooper, I.R., andCostlow, J.D. 1982. Inhibition and induction of barnacle settlement by natural products present in octocorals.J. Chem. Ecol. 10:823–834.Google Scholar
  15. Stoecker, D. 1978. Resistance of a tunicate to fouling.Biol. Bull. 155:615–626.Google Scholar
  16. Sutherland, J.P. 1984. The structure and stability of marine macrofouling communities, pp. 202–206,in J.D. Costlow and R.C. Tipper (eds.). Marine Biodeterioration: An Interdisciplinary Study. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis.Google Scholar
  17. Sutherland, J.P., andKarlson, R.H. 1977. Development and stability of the fouling community at Beaufort, North Carolina.Ecol. Monogr. 47:425–446.Google Scholar
  18. Targett, N.M., Bishop, S.S., McConnell, D.J., andYoder, J.A. 1983. Antifouling agents against the benthic marine diatomNavicula salinicola: Homarine from the gorgonianLeptogorgia virgulata andL. setacea and analogs.J. Chem. Ecol. 9:817–829.Google Scholar
  19. Tursch, B., Braekman, J.C., Daloze, D., andKaisin, M. 1978. Terpenoids from coelenterates, pp. 247–296,in P.J. Scheuer (ed.). Marine Natural Products, Vol. II. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Ware, G.N. 1984. The patterns and mechanisms of antifouling in some temperate sponges. PhD dissertation. Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  21. Wiedenmayer, F. 1977. Shallow-water sponges of the western Bahamas. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel. 287 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret A. Sears
    • 1
  • Donald J. Gerhart
    • 1
  • Dan Rittschof
    • 1
  1. 1.Duke University Marine LaboratoryBeaufort

Personalised recommendations