Journal of Consumer Policy

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 21–45 | Cite as

Third sector and co-operative services — An alternative to privatization

  • Victor A. Pestoff
Articles

Abstract

There is a growing political and fiscal urgency in Sweden for renewing the public sector and enriching the welfare state. Neither of the protagonists in the current debate about public or private social services takes third sector alternatives nor the potential contribution they could make into account. Three such contributions are empowerment of consumers, renewal and enrichment of working life, and enhancement of goal fulfillment in the public sector through third sector cooperative alternatives. All three of these contributions are also objectives for renewing the public sector and enriching the welfare state. Reasons for failing to consider the contribution of third sector alternatives to these objectives may be partly ideological and partly due to ignorance. But whatever the reason, there are numerous theoretical and practical implications for promoting third sector alternatives for achieving both public and private goals. This article argues that each of the three types of third sector alternatives discussed herein makes a direct contribution to one or more of these objectives, while it also contributes indirectly to the other two. There are also certain disadvantages or trade-offs associated with each alternative and objective, which are discussed herein.

Zusammenfassung

Tertiärer Sektor und gemeinnützige Dienstleistungen — eine Alternative zur Privatisierung. In Schweden gibt es einen wachsenden politischen und fiskalischen Druck für eine Erneuerung des öffentlichen Sektors und für eine Stärkung des Wohlfahrtstaates. Dabei fällt auf, da\ keiner der Protagonisten der derzeitigen Diskussion über öffentliche und private soziale Dienste die besonderen Möglichkeiten des tertiären Sektors und seine potentiellen Beiträge würdigt oder berücksichtigt. Zu diesen Beiträgen gehören die Aufwertung des Verbrauchers, die Erneuerung und Anreicherung des Arbeitslebens oder die bessere Zielerreichung im öffentlichen Sektor. Diese Beiträge sind zugleich aber auch Ziele der Erneuerung des öffentlichen Sektors und der Aufwertung des Wohlfahrtstaates. Grunde dafür, da\ die Möglichkeiten des tertiären Sektors zur Erreichung dieser Ziele übersehen werden, sind teilweise ideologischer Art, teilweise beruhen sie aber auch auf Unkenntnis. Welcher Grund auch immer ma\gebend ist — es gibt zahlreiche theoretische und praktische Gründe dafür, die Aktivitäten des tertiären Sektors zur Erreichung öffentlicher Ziele stärker zu unterstützen. Der Beitrag behandelt nicht nur, welche Aktivitäten des tertiären Sektors in welcher Form zu welchen dieser Ziele beitragen, sondern prüft auch, welche Nachteile oder trade-offs, bestehen können.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Christensen, A. (1990). Barnomsorg i den svenska fabriken (Child care in the factory of Sweden).Dagens Nyheter, January 23.Google Scholar
  2. Dellenbrant, J. å. (1988).The changing role of co-operatives in socialist countries. Umeå: University of Umeå, Department of Political Science.Google Scholar
  3. European Communities (1986).The cooperative, mutual and non-profit sector and its organizations in the European Community. Luxembourg: EC.Google Scholar
  4. Folkrörelseutredningen (1986).Kommitédirektiv till en utredning om ett ökat ansvar för folkrörelser, föreningar och kooperativ (Instructions to a parliamentary commission to consider increased responsibilities for voluntary associations, organizations, and co-operatives). Stockholm: Civildepartementet. Directive 1986: 17.Google Scholar
  5. Folkrörelseutredningen (1987).Ju mer vi är tillsammans, del 1–3 (The more we are together, parts 1–3). Stockholm: SOU (Swedish Government Reports), 1987: 33–35.Google Scholar
  6. Folkrörelseutredningen (1989).Mål og resultat (Objectives and results). Stockholm: SOU (Swedish Government Reports), 1989: 39.Google Scholar
  7. Hall, P. D. (1987). Abandoning the rhetoric of independence: Reflections on the nonprofit sector in the post-liberal era.Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 16, 11–21.Google Scholar
  8. Havel, V. (1978). De maktlösas makt (The power of the powerless). In: V. Havel,En dåre i Prag (A fool in Prague). Stockholm: Symposion.Google Scholar
  9. Hirschman, A. O. (1970).Exit, voice, and loyalty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Hirschman, A. O. (1981).Essays in trespassing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Hirschman, A. O. (1982).Shifting involvements. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  12. HSB (1988a). Boendeservice i HSB — det kooperativa alternativet (Caring for the tenants — the co-operative alternative). Stockholm: HSB.Google Scholar
  13. HSB (1988b).Kooperativa daghem i HSB — alternativet inom barnomsorg (Co-operative day care centers in HSB — the alternative child care). Stockholm: HSB.Google Scholar
  14. Johnsson, N. (1989). The privatization of welfare.Social Policy & Administration, 23, 17–29.Google Scholar
  15. Jordan, J. (1989). A multi-stakeholder concept of organizations. In: J. Quarter & G. Melnyk (Eds.),Partners in enterprise — The worker ownership phenomenon, pp. 113–131. Montreal: Black Rose Books.Google Scholar
  16. Kooperativa institutet (1986a).Föräldrakooperativa daghem — en vägledning (Parental day care co-operatives — A guide). Stockholm: Kooperativa institutet.Google Scholar
  17. Kooperativa institutet (1986b).Kooperativ stadsdel (The co-operative neighborhood). Stockholm: Kooperativa institutet.Google Scholar
  18. Kooperativa institutet (1989).Föräldrakooperativa daghem — den tredje vägen inom barnomsorg (Parental day care co-operatives — the third alternative in child care). Stockholm: Kooperativa instituet.Google Scholar
  19. Kramer, R. (1981).Voluntary agencies in the welfare state. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  20. Kramer, R. (1990a). Nonprofit social services and the welfare state: Some research considerations. In: H. Anheier & W. Seibel (Eds.),The third sector: Comparative studies of nonprofit organizations, pp. 255–267. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  21. Kramer, R. (1990b).Voluntary organizations in the welfare state on the threshold of the 90's. Paper presented at the London School of Economics, November 29, 1989.Google Scholar
  22. Kulle, S. (1991). Government and the Voluntary Sector in Norway. Vienna: EGOS paper.Google Scholar
  23. Lindkvist, L. (1990).Arbetskooperation (Worker co-operatives). Stockholm: Nordic Council of Ministers and Kooperativa institutet.Google Scholar
  24. Lindkvist, L., & Westenholz, A. (Eds.),Medarbetarägda företag i Norden (Employee-owned companies in the Nordic countries). Stockholm: Nordic Council of Ministers.Google Scholar
  25. Marin, B., & Kanis, P. (1989).Managing AIDS — A project description. Vienna: European Centre.Google Scholar
  26. Missnöjd personal kartlägges (Dissatisfied staff will be studied).Dagens Nyheter, January 18.Google Scholar
  27. Nielsen, K. (1989). Flexible adjustment and political stability: The terms of the debate.Scandinavian Political Studies, 12, 297–313.Google Scholar
  28. Nielsen, K., & Pedersen, O. K. (1989). Is small still flexible — An evaluation of recent trends in Danish politics.Scandinavian Political Studies, 12, 343–372.Google Scholar
  29. Pestoff, V. (1989). Organisationernas medverkan och förhandlingar i svensk konsumentpolitik (Organizational participation and negotiations in Swedish consumer policy). In: K. Nielsen & O. K. Pedersen (Eds.),ForhandlingsØkonomi i Norden, pp. 102–139. Copenhagen: DJØF.Google Scholar
  30. Pestoff, V. (1990a). Nonprofit organizations and consumer policy: The Swedish model. In: H. Anheier & W. Seibel (Eds.),The third sector: Comparative studies of nonprofit organizations, pp. 77–91. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  31. Pestoff, V. (1990b). Kooperation och sociala tjänster (Co-operation and social services). In:Ombyggnad pågår! Om kooperativ utveckling inom den offentliga sektorn. Stockholm: Kooperative Institutet.Google Scholar
  32. Pestoff, V., et al. (1990).Managing AIDS in Sweden. Stockholm: University of Stockholm, Department of Business Administration.Google Scholar
  33. Pestoff, V. (1991a).Social service i kooperativ regi — ett alternativ till privatisering (Social service in a co-operative framework — An alternative to privatization). Stockholm: Föreningen Kooperativa Studier.Google Scholar
  34. Pestoff, V. (1991b).Co-operatives between markets and politics. Frankfurt: Campus.Google Scholar
  35. Pestoff, V. (1992).Towards a new Swedish model: From neo-cooperatist to neo-liberal priorities for the welfare state. Cracow: Academy of Economics.Google Scholar
  36. Pestoff, V., & Ronit, D. (1990).Changing environments and European integration. Stockholm: University of Stockholm, Department of Business Administration.Google Scholar
  37. Rovira, J. (1990). The role of nonprofit organizations in the Spanish health care market. In: H. Anheier & W. Seibel (Eds.),The third sector: Comparative studies of nonprofit organizations, pp. 333–345. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  38. Salamon, L. (1987). On market failure, voluntary failure, and third party government: Towards a theory of government-nonprofit relations in the modern welfare state.Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 16, 20–49.Google Scholar
  39. Streeck, W., & Schmitter, P. (1985). Community, market, state — and associations? In: W. Streeck & P. Schmitter,Private interest government: Beyond market and state, pp. 1–29. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Stryjan, Y. (1989).Why does established cooperation need new cooperation? Stockholm: University of Stockholm, Department of Business Administration.Google Scholar
  41. Stryjan, Y. (1990).Cooperatives in a changing world: Membership, organizational strategies, and adaptation. Stockholm: University of Stockholm, Department of Business Administration.Google Scholar
  42. Szulkin, R. (1989).Privat eller offentlig (Private or public)? Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  43. Tarschys, D. (1990). Barnomsorgens förlorade år (Child care's lost years).Dagens Nyheter, January 29.Google Scholar
  44. Walden Laing, D., & Eads, M. (1991b).Managing AIDS in Sweden. Vienna: Conference paper.Google Scholar
  45. Walzer, M. (1990).The civil society. Stockholm: The Gunnar Myrdal Lecture.Google Scholar
  46. William-Olsson, I. (1988).Vilka tar ansvar för barnomsorgen (Who takes the responsibility for child care)? Stockholm: Lärarhögskolan.Google Scholar
  47. Zan, S. (1982).La cooperazione in Italia. Bari: De Donato coop.Google Scholar
  48. Zan, S. (1988).The social responsibility of consumer co-operatives. Paper presented at the ICA World Congress, Stockholm, July 1–4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor A. Pestoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Business AdministrationUniversity of StockholmStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations