Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 1417–1429 | Cite as

Sex pheromone ofEupoecilia ambiguella female: Analysis and male response to ternary blend

  • Heinrich Arn
  • Stefan Rauscher
  • Hans -Rudolf Buser
  • Patrick M. Guerin


Sex gland extracts and washes ofEupoecilia ambiguella contain 10–20 ng/female of the primary sex pheromone componentZ-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9–12∶Ac), accompanied by a number of related compounds. These areE-9-dodecenyl acetate (E9–12∶Ac),Z-9-dodecen-1-ol (Z9–12∶OH), saturated acetates of 12, 16, 18, and 20 carbons, and traces of a doubly unsaturated acetate, tentatively identified as a 9,11-dodecadienyl acetate. Octadecyl acetate predominates among the pheromone-related components, making up 1–2, occasionally 20–30 times the amount ofZ9–12∶Ac. The same compounds were also found in field-collected females and in effluvia.Z-9-Undecenyl acetate, which is a male attractant on its own, was also found in a sample of female effluvia. A hierarchy is observed in the ethological function of the pheromone components.Z9–12∶Ac is an attractant forE. ambiguella males. Dodecyl acetate (12∶Ac) is not attractive on its own but augments male catch when added to the main attractant. Addition of 18∶Ac augments attraction only when bothZ9–12∶Ac and 12∶Ac are present. Windtunnel tests demonstrate that 18∶Ac also raises the disorientation threshold, as previously shown for 12∶Ac. Other compounds, with the possible exception of additional saturated acetates, had either no effect on trap catch or, in the case ofE9–12∶Ac,Z9–12∶OH, andE-9,11-dodecadienyl acetate, were inhibitory above a certain level. A blend of roughly equal parts ofZ9–12∶Ac, 12∶Ac, and 18∶Ac provides the best attractant blend forE. ambiguella known to date.

Key Words

Eupoecilia ambiguella Lepidoptera Tortricidae sex pheromone sex attractant synergist Z-9-dodecenyl acetate dodecyl acetate octadecyl acetate 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arn, H., Städler, E., andRauscher, S. 1975. The electroantennographic detector—a selective and sensitive tool in the gas chromatographic analysis of insect pheromones.Z. Naturforsch. 30c:722–725.Google Scholar
  2. Arn, H., Rauscher, S., Buser, H.-R., andRoelofs, W.L. 1976. Sex pheromone ofEupoecilia ambiguella: cis-9-dodecenyl acetate as a major component.Z. Naturforsch. 31c:499–503.Google Scholar
  3. Arn, H., Rauscher, S., andSchmid, A. 1979. Sex attractant formulations and traps for the grape mothEupoecilia ambiguella Hb.Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 52:49–55.Google Scholar
  4. Arn, H., Rauscher, S., Schmid, A., Jaccard, C., andBierl-Leonhardt, B.A. 1981. Field experiments to develop control of the grape moth,Eupoecilia ambiguella, by communication disruption, pp. 327–338,in E.R. Mitchell (ed.). Management of Insect Pests with Semiochemicals. Plenum Publishing Co., New York.Google Scholar
  5. Bovey, P. 1966. Super-famille des Tortricoidea, pp. 456–893,in A.S. Balachovsky (ed.). Entomologie appliquée à l'Agriculture. Masson et Cie., Paris.Google Scholar
  6. Buser, H.R., Arn, H., Guerin, P., andRauscher, S. 1983. Determination of double bond position in monounsaturated acetates by mass spectrometry of dimethyl disulfide adducts.Anal. Chem. 55:818–822.Google Scholar
  7. Descoins, C., Einhorn, J., Lalanne-Cassou, B., andPralavorio, M. 1985. Etude de la sécrétion phéromonale de la tordeuse européenne de l'oeillet:Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hb.), Lep. Tortricidae, Tortricinae.Agronomie 5:19–26.Google Scholar
  8. Götz, B. 1941a. Der Sexualduftstoff als Bekämpfungsmittel gegen die Traubenwickler im Freiland.Wein Rebe 23:75–89.Google Scholar
  9. Götz, B. 1941b. Beiträge zur Analyse des Mottenfluges bei den TraubenwicklernClysia ambiguella undPolychrosis botrana.Wein Rebe 23:207–228.Google Scholar
  10. Guerin, P., Arn, H., andBuser, H.R. 1985. Characterization of some tortricid sex pheromones using the insect antenna as a gas chromatographic detector, pp. 239–250,in T.E. Acree and D.M. Soderlund (eds.). Semiochemistry: Flavors and Pheromones. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  11. Guerin, P.M., Arn, H., Buser, H.R., andCharmillot, P.J. 1986. Sex pheromone ofAdoxophyes orana: Additional components and variability in ratio ofZ-9- andZ-11-tetradecenyl acetate.J. Chem. Ecol. 12:763–772.Google Scholar
  12. Linn, C.E., Bjostad, L.B., Du, J.W., andRoelofs, W.L. 1984. Redundancy in a chemical signal: Behavioral responses of maleTrichoplusia ni to a 6-component sex pheromone blend.J. Chem. Ecol. 10:1635–1658.Google Scholar
  13. Jain, S.C., Dussourd, D.E., Conner, W.E., Eisner, T., Guerrero, A., andMeinwald, J. 1982. Polyene pheromone components from an arctiid moth (Utetheisa ornatrix): Characterization and synthesis.J. Org. Chem. 48:2266–2270.Google Scholar
  14. Minks, A.K. 1971. Decreased sex pheromone production in an in-bred stock of the summerfruit tortrix moth,Adoxophyes orana.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 14:361–364.Google Scholar
  15. Perry, J.N., Wall, C., andGreenway, A.R. 1980. Latin-square designs in field experiments involving sex attractants.Ecol. Entomol. 5:385–396.Google Scholar
  16. Rauscher, S., Arn, H., andGuerin, P. 1984. Effects of dodecyl acetate andZ-10-tridecenyl acetate on attraction ofEupoecilia ambiguella males to the main sex pheromone component,Z-9-dodecenyl acetate.J. Chem. Ecol. 10:253–264.Google Scholar
  17. Roehrich, R., Carles, J.P., Trésor, C., andDe Vathaire, M.A., 1979. Essais de “confusion sexuelle” contre les tordeuses de la grappe l'eudémisLobesia botrana Den et Schiff, et la cochylisEupoecilia ambiguella Tr.Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. 11:659–675.Google Scholar
  18. Saglio, P., Descoins, C., Gallois, M., Lettéré, M., Jaouen, D., andMercier, J. 1977. Etude de la pheromone sexuelle de la cochylis de la vigneEupoecilia (Clysia) ambiguella, HB LépidoptèreTortricoidea, Cochylidae.Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. 9:553–562.Google Scholar
  19. Winkelmann-Vogt, H., andSchropp, A. 1984. Field trials on mating disruption of the grape mothEupoecilia ambiguella (Hb.) (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae) by the use of the synthetic pheromone Z-9-DDA (HERCON-formulation). Paper presented at Joint EPRS/WPRS IOBC Conference on Attractant Pheromones, Balatonalmády, Hungary, September 18–22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinrich Arn
    • 1
  • Stefan Rauscher
    • 1
  • Hans -Rudolf Buser
    • 1
  • Patrick M. Guerin
    • 1
  1. 1.Swiss Federal Research StationWädenswilSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations