Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 1329–1337

Effects of comsumption of high and low nicotine tobacco byManduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) on survival of gregarious endoparasitoidCotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

  • K. W. Thorpe
  • P. Barbosa
Article

Abstract

The significance of nicotine in the three trophic level interaction involving tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), and the parasitoidCotesia congregata was investigated in field plots of two varieties of tobacco which had about a 10-fold difference in their nicotine content. WhileM. sexta mortality, rates of parasitism byC. congregata, and the total number ofC. congregata larvae produced per host were similar on each of the two varieties, the number of parasitoids reaching adult-hood on the low nicotine treatment was nearly twice that on the high nicotine treatment. This difference was due to the significantly greater proportion of parasitoid larvae which failed to emerge from the host or that died prior to pupation after emerging from hosts which fed on the high nicotine variety. A greater proportion of larvae from hosts which fed on the low nicotine tobacco died as pupae. No treatment differences occurred for either sex of the parasitoid in individual dry weight, longevity, or pupal development time, except that female pupal duration was prolonged in the high nicotine treatment. These results support the suggestion that plant allelochemicals, which may function to provide plant resistance against pest herbivores, can be detrimental to natural enemies of the pest.

Key Words

Plant allelochemical parasitoid three trophic level interaction antibiosis nicotine tobacco Manduca sexta Lepidoptera Sphingidae Cotesia congregata Hymenoptera Braconidae 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aizawa, K. 1963. The nature of infections caused by nuclear-polyhedrosis viruses, pp. 381–412,in E.A. Steinhaus, (ed.). Insect Pathology, An Advanced Treatise, Vol 1. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Barbosa, P., andSaunders, J.A. 1985. Plant allelochemicals: Linkages between herbivores and their natural enemies, pp. 107–137,in G.A. Cooper-Driver, T. Swain, and E.E. Coon, (eds.). Chemically Mediated Interactions Between Plants and Other Organisms. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, Vol. 19. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Barbosa, P., Saunders, J.A., andWaldvogel, M. 1982. Plant mediated variation in herbivore suitability and parasitoid fitness, pp. 63–71,in J.H. Visser and A.K. Minks (eds.). Proceedings, 5th International Symposium on Insect Plant Relations. CAPD, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  4. Barbosa, P., Saunders, J.A., Kemper, J., Trumbule, R., Olechno, J., andMartinat, P. 1986. Plant allelochemicals and insect parasitoids: Effects of nicotine onCotesia congregata (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) andHyposoter annulipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).J. Chem. Ecol. 12:1319–1328.Google Scholar
  5. Blau, P.A., Feeny, P., Contardo, L., andRobson, D.S. 1978. Allylglucosinolate and herbivorous caterpillars: A contrast in toxicity and tolerance.Science 200:1296–1298.Google Scholar
  6. Borth, P.W., andHarrison, F.P. 1984. Within-field distribution patterns of tobacco and tomato hornworm (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) egg and larval populations in sourthern Maryland tobacco.Environ. Entomol. 13:859–862.Google Scholar
  7. Campbell, B.C., andDuffey, S.F. 1979. Tomatine and parasitic wasps: Potential incompatibility of plant antibiosis with biological control.Science 205:700–702.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, B.C., andDuffey, S.F. 1981. Alleviation of α-tomatine-induced toxicity to the parasitoid,Hyposoter exiguae, by phytosterols in the diet of the host,Heliothis zea.J. Chem. Ecol. 7:927–946.Google Scholar
  9. Chaplin, J.F. 1975. Registration of LAFC 53 tobacco germplasm.Crop Sci. 15:282.Google Scholar
  10. Chaplin, J.F., andWeeks, W.W. 1976. Association between percent total alkaloids and other traits in flue-cured tobacco.Crop Sci. 16:416–418.Google Scholar
  11. Doane, C.C. andMcManus, M.L. (eds.). 1981. The Gypsy Moth: Research Toward Integrated Pest Management. USDA Tech. Bull. 1584.Google Scholar
  12. Eisner, T. 1970. Chemical defense against predation in Arthropods, pp. 157–217,in E. Sondheimer and J.B. Simeone (eds.). Chemical Ecology. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Erikson, J.M., andFeeny, P. 1974. Sinigrin: A chemical barrier to the black swallowtail butterfly,Papilio polyxenes.Ecology 55:103–111.Google Scholar
  14. Feeny, P.P. 1975. Biochemical coevolution between plants and their insect herbivores, pp. 3–19,in L.E. Gilbert and P.H. Raven (eds.). Coevolution of Animals and Plants. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  15. Feeny, P.P. 1976. Plant apparency and chemical defense.Recent Adv. Phytochem. 10:1–40.Google Scholar
  16. Gilmore, J.U. 1938. Notes onApanteles congregatus (Say) as a parasite in tobacco hornworms.J. Econ. Entomol. 31:712–715.Google Scholar
  17. Lawson, F.R. 1959. The natural enemies of the hornworms on tobacco (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 52:741–755.Google Scholar
  18. Lawton, J.H., andMcNeill, S. 1979. Between the devil and the deep blue sea: On the problem of being a herbivore, pp. 223–244,in R.M. Anderson, B.D. Turner, and L.R. Taylor (eds.). Population Dynamics. 20th Symposium of the British Ecology Society, Blackwell Scientific, London.Google Scholar
  19. Lincoln, D.E., Newton, T.S., Ehrlich, P.R., andWilliams, K.S. 1982. Coevolution of the checkerspot butterflyEuphydryas chalcedonia and its larval food plantDiplacus aurantiacus: Larval response to protein and leaf resin.Oecologia (Berlin) 52:216–223.Google Scholar
  20. Mattson, W.J. 1980. Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content.Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11:119–161.Google Scholar
  21. McFadden, M.W. 1968. Observations on feeding and movement of tobacco hornworm larvae.J. Econ. Entomol. 61:352–356.Google Scholar
  22. Morgan, A.C. 1910. Observations recorded at the 236th regular meeting of the Entomological Society of Washington.Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 12:72.Google Scholar
  23. Parr, J.C., andThurston, R. 1972. Toxicity of nicotine in synthetic diets to larvae of the tobacco hornworm.Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 65:1185–1188.Google Scholar
  24. Price, P.W., Bouton, C.E., Gross, P., McPheron, B.A., Thompson, J.N., andWeis, A.E. 1980. Interactions among three trophic levels: Influence of plants and interactions between herbivores and natural enemies.Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11:41–65.Google Scholar
  25. Rhoades, D.F., andCates, R.G. 1976. Toward a general theory of plant antiherbivore chemistry.Recent Adv. Phytochem. 10:168–213.Google Scholar
  26. Rosenthal, G.A., andJanzen, D.H. 1979. Herbivores: Their Interactions With Secondary Plant Metabolites. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Saunders, J.A., andBlume, D.E. 1981. Quantitation of major tobacco alkaloids by high performance liquid chromatography.J. Chromatogr. 205:147–154.Google Scholar
  28. Self, L.S., Guthrie, F.E., andHodgson, E. 1964. Adaptation of tobacco hornworms to the injestion of nicotine.J. Insect Physiol. 10:907–914.Google Scholar
  29. Schultz, J.C. 1983. Impact of variable plant defensive chemistry on susceptibility of insects to natural enemies, pp. 37–53,in P. Hedin (ed.). Mechanisms of Plant Resistance to Insects. Americal Chemical Society Symposium Series 208. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  30. Southwood, T.R.E. 1978. Ecological Methods, with Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  31. Thurston, R., andFox, P.M. 1972. Inhibition by nicotine of emergence ofApanteles congregatus from its host, the tobacco hornworm.Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 65:547–550.Google Scholar
  32. Wilson, F., andHuffaker, C.B. 1976. The Philosophy, scope, and importance of biological control, pp. 3–15,in C.B. Huffaker and P.S. Messenger (eds.). Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Yang, R.S.H. andGuthrie, F.E. 1969. Physiological responses of insects to nicotine.Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 62:141–146.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. W. Thorpe
    • 1
  • P. Barbosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of MarylandCollege Park
  2. 2.Department of Plant Science and Mechanized AgricultureCalifornia State UniversityFresno

Personalised recommendations