Plant allelochemicals and insect parasitoids effects of nicotine onCotesia congregata (say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) andHyposoter annulipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)
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Parasitoids developing within tobacco hornworms or fall army-worms exhibit significant differences in development and survival depending on whether their hosts fed on nicotine-free or nicotine-containing diets. The effects of nicotine were more severe on the relatively less adapted parasitoid,H. annulipes than the specialist parasitoid,Cotesia congregata. Labeled alkaloid originally placed in herbivore diet was incorporated in several parasitoid tissues. These results suggest that interactions between plant allelochemicals and parasitoids should be considered in the development of theory on insect herbivory and plant defense.
Key WordsPlant allelochemical parasitoids three trophic level interactions nicotine Manduca sexta Lepidoptera Sphingidae Spodoptera frugiperda Noctuidae Cotesia congregata Hymenoptera Braconidae Hyposoter annulipes Ichneumonidae
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