The Histochemical Journal

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 457–471 | Cite as

Ileal Paneth cells and IgA system in rats with severe zinc deficiency: An immunohistochemical and morphological study

  • I. Dodd Wilson
  • Craig J. McClain
  • Stanley L. Erlandsen
Papers

Summary

Morphological abnormalities in Paneth cells occur in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica, a chereditary disease associated with zinc deficiency; furthermore, rat Paneth cells contain large amounts of zinc. This study was conducted to assess the effect of severe zinc deficiency in Sprague-Dawley rats on various parameters of Paneth cells. Morphology at both the light microscopical and ultrastructural levels, Paneth cell numbers per crypt and the intracellular distribution of lysozyme were not altered by zinc deficiency. A weak correlation (r=+0.38,P=0.05) was noted between ileal zinc concentration and numbers of IgA-containing Paneth cells per crypt. These findings indicate that the morphological abnormalities noted in human Paneth cells in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica cannot be reproduced by experimental severe zinc deficiency in rats. Furthermore, these generally negative findings suggest that the severe diarrhoea often associated with zinc deficiency is not attributable to abnormalities induced in Paneth cells by zinc deficiency.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bohane, T. D., Cutz, E., Hamilton, J. R. &Gall, D. G. (1977) Acrodermatitis enteropathica, zinc and the Paneth cell. A case report with family studies.Gastroenterology 73, 587–92.Google Scholar
  2. Brummerstedt, E., Baase, A., Flagstad, T. &Andresen, E. (1977) Animal model of human disease: acrodermatitis enteropathica, zinc malabsorption.Am. J. Path. 87, 725–8.Google Scholar
  3. Cousins, R. J. (1979) Regulation of zinc absorption: role of intracellular ligands.Am. J. clin. Nutr. 32, 339–45.Google Scholar
  4. Elmes, M. E. (1976) The Paneth cell population of the small intestine of the rat-effects of fasting and zinc deficiency on total count and on dithizone-reactive count.J. Path. 118, 183–91.Google Scholar
  5. Erlandsen, S. L. &Chase, D. G. (1972a) Paneth cell function: phagocytosis and intracellular digestion of intestinal microorganisms. I.Hexamita muris.J. Ultrastruct. Res. 41, 296–318.Google Scholar
  6. Erlandsen, S. L. &Chase, D. G. (1972b) Paneth cell function: phagocytosis and intracellular digestion of intestinal microorganisms. II. Spiral microorganisms.J. Ultrastruct. Res. 41, 319–33.Google Scholar
  7. Erlandsen, S. L., Parsons, J. A. &Taylor, T. D. (1974) Ultrastructural immunocytochemical localization of lysozyme in the Paneth cells of man.J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22, 401–13.Google Scholar
  8. Erlandsen, S. L., Rodning, C. B., Montero, C., Parsons, J. A., Lewis, E. A. &Wilson, I. D. (1976) Immunocytochemical identification and localization of immunoglobulin A within Paneth cells of the rat small intestine.J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24, 1085–92.Google Scholar
  9. Evans, G. W., Grace, C. I. &Votava, H. J. (1975) A proposed mechanism for zinc absorption in the rat.Am. J. Physiol. 228, 501–5.Google Scholar
  10. Fraker, P. J., Haas, S. M. &Luecke, R. W. (1977) Effect of zinc deficiency on the immune response of the young adult A/J mouse.J. Nutr. 107, 1889–95.Google Scholar
  11. Golden, M. H. N., Jackson, A. A. &Golden, B. E. (1977) Effect of zinc on thymus of recently malnourished children.Lancet 2, 1057–9.Google Scholar
  12. Kay, R. G., Tasman-Jones, C., Pybus, J., Whiting, R. &Black, H. (1976) A syndrome of acute zinc deficiency during total parenteral alimentation in man.Ann. Surg. 183, 331–40.Google Scholar
  13. Klevay, L. M., Petering, H. G. &Stemmer, K. L. (1971) A controlled environment for trace metal experiments on animals.Environ. Sci. Technol. 5, 1196–9.Google Scholar
  14. Koo, S. I. &Turk, D. E. (1977) Effect of zinc deficiency on the ultrastructure of the pancreatic acinar cell and intestinal epithelium in the rat.J. Nutr. 107, 896–908.Google Scholar
  15. Kowarski, S., Blair-Stanek, C. S. &Schachter, D. (1974) Active transport of zinc and identification of zinc-binding protein in rat jejunal mucosa.Am. J. Physiol. 226, 401–7.Google Scholar
  16. Lombeck, I., von Bassewitz, D. B., Becker, K., Tinschmann, P. &Kästner, H. (1974) Ultrastructural findings on acrodermatitis enteropathica.Pediat. Res. 8, 82–8.Google Scholar
  17. McClain, C. J., Van Thiel, D. H., Parker, S., Badzin, L. K. &Gilbert, H. (1979) Alterations in zinc, vitamin A and retinol-binding protein in chronic alcoholics: A possible mechanism for night blindness and hypogonadism.Alcoholism: Clin. expl Res. 3, 135–41.Google Scholar
  18. Midorikawa, O. &Eder, M. (1962) Vergleichende histochemische untersuchungen über zink in darm.Histochemie 2, 444–72.Google Scholar
  19. Millar, M. J., Vincent, N. R. &Mawson, C. A. (1961) An autoradiographic study of the distribution of zinc-65 in rat tissues.J. Histochem. Cytochem. 9, 111–16.Google Scholar
  20. O'Leary, M. J., McClain, C. J. &Hegarty, P. V. J. (1979) Effect of zinc deficiency on the weight and celllularity of different skeletal muscles in the post-weaning rat.Br. J. Nutr. 42, 487–95.Google Scholar
  21. Otto, H. F. &Weitz, H. (1972) Electronenmikroskopische untersuchungen an Paneth-Zellen der ratte unter zinkarmer diät.Beitr. Path. Bd. 145, 336–49.Google Scholar
  22. Pearse, A. G. E. (1968)Histochemistry: Theoretical and Applied. 3rd edn. pp. 495–546, 925–37. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  23. Polanco, I., Nistal, M., Guerrero, J. &Vázquez, C. (1976) Acrodermatitis enteropathica, zinc and ultrastructural lesions in Paneth cells.Lancet 1, 430.Google Scholar
  24. Prasad, A. S., Oberleas, D., Wolf, P. &Horwitz, J. P. (1967) Studies on zinc deficiency: Changes in trace elements and enzyme activities in tissues of zinc-deficient rats.J. clin. Invest. 46, 549–57.Google Scholar
  25. Reynolds, E. S. (1963) The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy.J. Cell Biol. 17, 208–12.Google Scholar
  26. Rodning, C. B., Wilson, I. D. &Erlandsen, S. L. (1976) Immunoglobulins within human small intestinal Paneth cells.Lancet 1, 984–7.Google Scholar
  27. Sullivan, J. F., Burch, R. E., Quigley, H. J. &Magee, D. F. (1974) Zinc deficiency and decreased pancreatic secretory response.Am. J. Physiol. 227, 105–8.Google Scholar
  28. Walravens, P. A., Hambidge, K. M., Neldner, K. H., Silverman, A., Van Doorninck, W. J., Mierau, G. &Favara, B. (1978) Zinc metabolism in acrodermatitis enteropathica.J. Pediat. 93, 71–3.Google Scholar
  29. Yoshinaga, T. (1974) Evidence of similar behavior of zinc in intestinal crypts and pancreatic islets.Endokrinologie 63, 53–65.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Dodd Wilson
    • 1
  • Craig J. McClain
    • 1
  • Stanley L. Erlandsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine and Department of AnatomyUniversity of Minnesota Medical SchoolMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations