, Volume 46, Issue 1–3, pp 109–148 | Cite as

The impact of accelerating land-use change on the N-Cycle of tropical aquatic ecosystems: Current conditions and projected changes

  • J. A. Downing
  • M. Mcclain
  • R. Twilley
  • J. M. Melack
  • J. Elser
  • N. N. Rabalais
  • W. M. LewisJr.
  • R. E. Turner
  • J. Corredor
  • D. Soto
  • A. Yanez-Arancibia
  • J. A. Kopaska
  • R. W. Howarth


Published data and analyses from temperate and tropical aquatic systems are used to summarize knowledge about the potential impact of land-use alteration on the nitrogen biogeochemistry of tropical aquatic ecosystems, identify important patterns and recommend key needs for research. The tropical N-cycle is traced from pre-disturbance conditions through the phases of disturbance, highlighting major differences between tropical and temperate systems that might influence development strategies in the tropics. Analyses suggest that tropical freshwaters are more frequently N-limited than temperate zones, while tropical marine systems may show more frequent P limitation. These analyses indicate that disturbances to pristine tropical lands will lead to greatly increased primary production in freshwaters and large changes in tropical freshwater communities. Increased freshwater nutrient flux will also lead to an expansion of the high production, N- and light-limited zones around river deltas, a switch from P- to N-limitation in calcareous marine systems, with large changes in the community composition of fragile mangrove and reef systems. Key information gaps are highlighted, including data on mechanisms of nutrient transport and atmospheric deposition in the tropics, nutrient and material retention capacities of tropical impoundments, and N/P coupling and stoichiometric impacts of nutrient supplies on tropical aquatic communities. The current base of biogeochemical data suggests that alterations in the N-cycle will have greater impacts on tropical aquatic ecosystems than those already observed in the temperate zone.

Key words

estuaries lakes marine nitrogen phosphorus rivers streams temperate tropics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andersen T & Hessen DO (1991) Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of freshwater Zooplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36: 807–814Google Scholar
  2. Andersen T (1993) Grazers as Sources and Sinks for Nutrients. PhD Dissertation, University of Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen T (1997) Pelagic Nutrient Cycles: Herbivores as Sources and Sinks. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  4. Arcifa MS, Carvalho MAJ, Gianesella-Galvao SMF, Shimizu GY, Froehlich CG & Castro RMC (1981a) Limnology of ten reservoirs in Southern Brazil. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 21: 1048–1053Google Scholar
  5. Arcifa MS, Froehlich CG & Gianesell-Galvao SMF (1981b) Circulation patterns and their influence on physico-chemical and biological conditions in eight reservoirs in Southern Brazil. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 21: 1054–1059Google Scholar
  6. Arheimer B & Witgren HB (1994) Modeling the effects of wetlands on regional nitrogen transport. Ambio 23: 378–286Google Scholar
  7. Asner GP, Seastedt TR & Townsend AR (1997) The decoupling of terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycles. BioScience 47: 226–234Google Scholar
  8. Bailey C, Jentoft S & Sinclair P (1996) Aquacultural Development: Social Dimensions of an Emerging Industry. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  9. Beaulac MN & Reckhow KH (1982) An examination of land-use-nutrient export relationships. Water Resources Bulletin 18: 1013–1024Google Scholar
  10. Behrens CA, Baksh MG & Mothes M (1994) A regional analysis of Barí land use intensification and its impact on landscape heterogeneity. Human Ecology 22: 279–316Google Scholar
  11. Billen G, Lancelot C & Meybeck M (1991) N, P, and Si retention along the aquatic continuum from land to ocean. In: Mantoura RFC, Martin JM & Wollast R (Eds) Ocean Margin Processes in Global Change (pp 19–44). Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  12. Blasco F (1984) Climatic factors and the biology of mangrove plants. In: Snedaker SC & Snedaker JG (Eds) The Mangrove Ecosystem: Research Methods (pp 18–35). UNESCO, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonetto C, De Cabo L, Gabillone N, Vinocur A, Donadelli J & Unrein F (1994) Nutrient dynamics in the deltaic floodplain of the Lower Paraná River. Arch. Hydrobiol. 131: 277–295Google Scholar
  14. Bonilla J, Senior W, Bugden J, Zafiriou O & Jones R (1993) Seasonal distribution of nutrients and primary productivity on the eastern continental shelf of Venezuela as influenced by the Orinoco River. J. Geophys. Res. 98: 2245–2257Google Scholar
  15. Bootsma HA, Bootsma MJ & Hecky RE (1996) The chemical composition of precipitation and its significance to the nutrient budget of Lake Malawi. In: Johnson TC & Odada EO (Eds) Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes (pp 251–265). Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  16. Brandes M, Chowdhry NA & Cheng WW (1974) Experimental study on removal of pollutants from domestic sewage by underdrained soil filters. In: American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Proceedings of the National Home Sewage Disposal Symposium (pp 29–36)Google Scholar
  17. Brodizio ES, Moran EF, Mausel P & Wu Y (1994) Land use change in the Amazon estuary: patterns of Caboclo settlement and landscape management. Human Ecology 22: 249–278Google Scholar
  18. Bruijnzeel LA (1990) Hydrology of Moist Tropical Forests and Effects of Conversion: A State of Knowledge Review. Humid Tropics Program, UNESCO Int. Hydrological ProgramGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruijnzeel LA (1991) Nutrient input-output budgets and tropical forest ecosystems: A review. J. Tropical Ecology 7: 1–24Google Scholar
  20. Bruijnzeel LA (1996) Predicting the hydrological impacts of land cover transformation in the humid tropics: the need for integrated research. In: Gash JHC, Nobre CA, Roberts JM & Victoria RL (Eds) Amazonian Deforestation and Climate (pp 15–55). John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  21. Carlsson P, Segatto AZ & Granéli E (1993) Nitrogen bound to humic matter of terrestrial origin — a nitrogen pool for coastal phytoplankton? Marine Ecology Progress Series 97: 105–116Google Scholar
  22. Carpenter EJ (1983) Nitrogen fixation by marine Oscillatoria (Trichodesmium) in the world's ocean. In: Carpenter EJ & Capone DG (Eds) Nitrogen in the Marine Environment. Academic Press, New York, NY. U.S.A.Google Scholar
  23. Chowdhury MK & Rosario EL (1993) Nitrogen utilization efficiency as affected by component populations in maize-mungbean intercropping. Trop. Agric. 70: 199–204Google Scholar
  24. Cole JJ, Peirls BL, Caraco NF & Pace ML (1993) Nitrogen loading of rivers as a human driven process. In: McDonnell MJ & Pickett STA (Eds) Humans as Components of Ecosystems: The Ecology of Subtle Human Effects and Populated Areas (pp 141–157). Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  25. Cooke GD, Welch EB, Peterson SA & Newroth PR (1993) Restoration and Management of Lakes and Reservoirs, 2nd Edn. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton. FL. U.S.A.Google Scholar
  26. Corredor JE (1979) Phytoplankton response to low-level nutrient enrichment through upwelling in the Colombia Caribbean Basin. Deep-Sea Research 26A: 731–741Google Scholar
  27. Corredor JE & Morell JM (1989) Nitrate depuration of secondary sewage effluents in mangrove sediments. Estuaries 17: 295–300Google Scholar
  28. Corredor JE, Morell JM & Díaz MR (1994) Environmental degradation, nitrogen dynamics and proliferation of the filamentous cyanophyte Microcoleus lyngbyaceus in nearshore Caribbean waters. In: Amato E (Ed.) Mediterraneo e Caraibe due Mari in Pericolo? Sversamenti Accidentali di Idrocarburi ed Emegenze Causate Dalle Alghe. ICRAM/IFREMER. Atti Convegno Internatzionale, GenovaGoogle Scholar
  29. Day JW Jr & Kemp P (1985) Long-term impacts of agricultural runoff in a Louisiana swamp forest. In: Godfrey PJ, Haynor ER, Pelczarski S & Benforado J (Eds) Ecological Considerations in Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewaters (pp 317–326). Van Nostrand, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  30. Deare FM, Ahmad N & Ferguson TU (1995) Downward movement of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in a flatland ultisol. Fertilizer Research 42: 175–184Google Scholar
  31. D'Elia CF & Wiebe WJ (1990) Biogeochemical nutrient cycles in coral-reef ecosystems. In: Dubinsky Z (Ed.) Ecosystems of the world 25, Coral reefs (pp 49–74). Elsevier, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  32. Díaz MR, Corredor JE & Morell JM (1990) Inorganic nitrogen uptake by Microcoleus lyngbyaceus mat communities in a semi-eutrophic marine community. Limnology & Oceanography 35: 1788–1795Google Scholar
  33. Diaz RJ & Rosenberg R (1995) Marine benthic hypoxia: a review of its ecological effects and the behavioral responses of benthic macrofauna. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 33: 245–303Google Scholar
  34. Diaz RJ, Neubauer RJ, Schaffner LC, Pihl L & Baden SP (1992) Continuous monitoring of dissolved oxygen in an estuary experiencing periodic hypoxia and the effect of hypoxia on macrobenthos and fish. Science of the Total Environment, Supplement 1992: 1055–1068Google Scholar
  35. Downing, JA (1997) Marine nitrogen: Phosphorus stoichiometry and the global N:P cycle. Biogeochemistry 37: 237–252Google Scholar
  36. Downing JA & McCauley E (1992) The nitrogen:phosphorus relationship in lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 37: 936–945Google Scholar
  37. Downing JA, Osenberg CW & Sarnelle O (1999) Meta-analysis of marine nutrient-enrichment experiments: variation in the magnitude of nutrient limitation. Ecology 80(4): (in press)Google Scholar
  38. Doyle RD & Fisher TR (1994) Nitrogen fixation by periphyton and plankton on the Amazon floodplain at Lake Calado. Biogeochemistry 26: 41–66Google Scholar
  39. Eastwood DA & Pollard HJ (1992) Amazonian colonization in eastern Ecuador: land use conflicts in a planning vacuum. Singapore J. Tropical Geography 13: 103–113Google Scholar
  40. Elser JJ, Chrzanowski TH, Sterner RW & Mills KH (1998) Stoichiometric constraints on food-web dynamics: a whole-lake experiment on the Canadian Shield. Ecosystems: in pressGoogle Scholar
  41. Elser JJ, Dobberfuhl D, MacKay NA & Schampel JH (1996) Organism size, life history, and N:P stoichiometry: towards a unified view of cellular and ecosystem processes. Bioscience 46: 674–684Google Scholar
  42. Elser JJ, Elser MM, MacKay NA & Carpenter SR (1988) Zooplankton-mediated transitions between N and P-limited algal growth. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 1–14Google Scholar
  43. Elser JJ, Marzolf ER & Goldman CR (1990) Phosphorus and nitrogen limitation of phytoplankton in freshwaters of North America: A review and critique of experimental enrichments. Can. J. Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. 47: 1468–1477Google Scholar
  44. Feller IC (1995) Effects of nutrient enrichment on growth and herbivory of dwarf red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Ecological Monographs 65: 477–505Google Scholar
  45. Fernandez ECM, Biot Y, Castilla C, Canto AC, Matos JC, Garcia S, Perin R & Wanderli E (1997) The impact of selective logging and forest conversion for subsistence agriculture and pastures on terrestrial nutrient dynamics in the Amazon. Ciencia e Cultura, in pressGoogle Scholar
  46. Fisher TR, Lesack LFW & Smith LK (1991) Input, recycling, and export of N and P on the Amazon floodplain at Lake Calado. In: Tiessen H, Lopez-Hernandez D & Salcedo IH (Eds), Phosphorus Cycles in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems. Regional Workshop 3: South and Central America (pp 34–53). University of Saskatchewan Press, ReginaGoogle Scholar
  47. Fleisher S & Stibe L (1991) Drainage basin management — reducing river transported nitrogen. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24: 1753–1755Google Scholar
  48. Forsberg BR (1984) Nutrient processing in Amazon floodplain Lakes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 22: 1294–1298Google Scholar
  49. Fourqurean JW, Jones RD & Zieman JC (1993) Processes influencing water column nutrient characteristics and phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton biomass in Florida Bay, FL, U.S.A.: Inferences from spatial distributions. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 36: 295–314Google Scholar
  50. Furch K & Junk WJ (1993) Seasonal nutrient dynamics in an Amazonian floodplain lake. Arch. Hydrobiol. 128: 277–285Google Scholar
  51. Galloway JN (1989) Atmospheric acidificatioN:Projections for the future. Ambio 16: 161–166Google Scholar
  52. Galloway JN, Levy H & Kasibhatia PS (1994) Year 2020: Consequences of population growth and development on deposition of oxidized nitrogen. Ambio 23: 120–123Google Scholar
  53. Garrity DP & Agustin DP (1995) Historical land use evolution in a tropical acid upland agroecosystem. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 53: 83–95Google Scholar
  54. Golterman HL (1975) Physiological Limnology: An Approach to the Physiology of Lake Ecosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  55. Gonzalez E, Paolini J & Infante A (1991) Water chemistry, physical features and primary production of phytoplankton in a tropical blackwater reservoir (Embalse de Guri, Venezuela). Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24: 1477–1481Google Scholar
  56. Hall A, Davies BR & Valente I (1976) Cabora Bassa: Some preliminary physicochemical and Zooplankton pre-impoundment results. Hydrobiologia 50: 17–25Google Scholar
  57. Hall CAS & Hall MHP (1993) The efficiency of land and energy use in tropical economies and agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 46: 1–30Google Scholar
  58. Hamilton SK, Sippel SJ, Calheiros DF & Melack JM (1997) An anoxic event and other biogeochemical effects of the Pantanal wetland on the Paraguay River. Limnology and Oceanography 42: 257–272Google Scholar
  59. Harris GP (1986) Phytoplankton ecology: structure, function and fluctuations. Chapman & HallGoogle Scholar
  60. Hecky RE, Bootsma HA, Mugiddeand RM & Bugenyi FWB (1996) Phosphorus pumps, nitrogen sinks, and silicon drains: plumbing nutrients in the African Great Lakes. In: Johnson TC & Odada EO (Eds) Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes (pp 205–224). Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam. The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  61. Hedgpeth JW (1957) Classification of marine environments. Geological Society of America, Memoir 67, Volume 1: 17–28Google Scholar
  62. Hedin LO, Armesto JJ, & Johnson AH (1995) Patterns of nutrient loss from unpolluted, oldgrowth temperate forests: evaluation of biogeochemical theory. Ecol. 76: 493–509Google Scholar
  63. Henry R, Tundisi JG & Curi PR (1984) Effects of phosphorus and nitrogen enrichment on the phytoplankton in a tropical reservoir (Lobo Reservoir, Brazil). Hydrobiologia 118: 177–185Google Scholar
  64. Hölscher D, Möller RF, Denich M & Fölster H (1997) Nutrient input-output budget of shifting agriculture in Eastern Amazonia. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 47: 49–57Google Scholar
  65. Home AJ & Galat DL (1985) Nitrogen fixation in an oligotrophic, saline desert lake: Pyramid Lake, Nevada. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30: 1229–1239Google Scholar
  66. Houghton RA (1994) The worldwide extent of land-use change. BioScience 44: 305–313Google Scholar
  67. Howarth RW (1988) Nutrient limitation of net primary productivity in marine ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19: 89–110Google Scholar
  68. Howarth RW (1998) An assessment of human influences on fluxes of nitrogen from the terrestrial landscape to the estuaries and continental shelves of the North Atlantic Ocean. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52: 213–223Google Scholar
  69. Howarth RW, Billen G, Swaney D, Townsend A, Jaworski N, Lajtha K, Downing JA, Elmgren R, Caraco N, Jordan T, Berendse F, Freney J, Kudeyarov V, Murdoch P, Zhao-Liang Z (1996) Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry 35: 75–139Google Scholar
  70. Jaworski NA, Howarth RW & Hetling LJ (1997) Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides onto the landscape contributes to coastal eutrophication in the northeast United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31: 1995–2004Google Scholar
  71. Juo ASR & Manu A (1996) Chemical dynamics in slash- and-burn agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 58: 49–60Google Scholar
  72. Justić D, Rabalais NN, Turner RE & Wiseman WJ Jr (1993) Seasonal coupling between riverborne nutrients, net productivity and hypoxia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26: 184–189Google Scholar
  73. Kauffman JB, Cummings DL, Ward DE & Babbitt R. (1995) Fire in the Brazilian Amazon: 1. Biomass, nutrient pools and losses in slashed primary forests. Oecologia. 104: 397–408Google Scholar
  74. Keftasa D (1994) Effects of harvest management and nitrogen application on yield and nutritional value of Rhodes grass and lucerne in pure stands and mixtures. Trop. Agric. 71: 88–94Google Scholar
  75. Kühne RF (1993) Wasser- und Nährstoffhauhalt in Mais-Maniok-Anbausgstemen mit und ohne Integration von Alleekultuven (“Alley cropping”) in Süd-Benin. Honen Heimer Bodenkundliche Hefte 13: 1–244Google Scholar
  76. Lesack LFW, Hecky RE & Melack JM (1984) Transport of carbon, nitrogen phosphorus and major solutes in the Gambia River, West Africa. Limnology & Oceaonography 29: 816–830Google Scholar
  77. Lesack LFW & Melack JM (1991) The deposition, composition, and potential sources of major ionic solutes in the central Amazon basin. Water Resources Research 27: 2953–2977Google Scholar
  78. Lesack LFW & Melack JM (1995) Flooding hydrology a mixture dynamics of lake water derived from mutiple sources in an Amazon floodplain lake. Water Resources Research 31: 329–341Google Scholar
  79. Lesack LFW & Melack JM (1996) Mass balance of major solutes in a rainforest catchment in the Central Amazon: implications for nutrient budgets in tropical rainforests. Biogeochem. 32: 115–142Google Scholar
  80. Lesack LFW (1993) Export of nutrients and major ionic solutes from a rain forest catchment in the central Amazon basin. Water Resources Research 29: 743–758Google Scholar
  81. Lewis WM Jr (1981) Precipitation chemistry and nutrient loading by precipitation in a tropical watershed. Water Resources Research 17: 169–181Google Scholar
  82. Lewis WM Jr (1996) Tropical lakes: how latitude makes a difference. In: Schiemer F & Boland KT (Eds) Perspectives in Tropical Limnology (pp 43–64). SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  83. Lewis WM Jr & Saunders JF (1989) Concentration and transport of dissolved and suspended substances in the Orinoco River. Biogeochemistry 7: 203–240Google Scholar
  84. Lewis WM Jr, Hamilton SK & Saunders JF (1995) Rivers of northern South America. In: Cushing CE, Cummins KW & Minshall GW (Eds) River and stream ecosystems. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  85. Loehr RC (1974) Characteristics and comparative magnitude of non-point sources. J. Water Pollution Control Federation 46: 1849–1872Google Scholar
  86. Mann KH (1975) Relationship between morphometry and biological functioning in three coastal inlets of Nova Scotia. In: Cronin LE (Ed.) Estuarine Research Vol. 1 (pp 634–644). Academic Press, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  87. Margalef R (1971) The pelagic ecosystem of the Caribbean Sea. In: Symposium on Investigations and Resources of the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions (pp 483–489). UNESCOGoogle Scholar
  88. Matsumura-Tundisi T, Hino K & Claro SM (1991) Limnological studies at 23 reservoirs in southern part of Brazil. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 21: 1040–1047Google Scholar
  89. McClain ME, Richey JE & Pimentel TP (1994) Groundwater nitrogen dynamics at the terrestrial-lotic interface of a small catchment in the Central Amazon Basin. Biogeochemistry 27: 113–127Google Scholar
  90. McDowell WH & Asbury CE (1994) Export of carbon, nitrogen and major ions from three tropical montane watersheds. Limnology & Oceanography 39: 111–125Google Scholar
  91. Melack JM & Fisher TR (1990) Comparative limnology of tropical floodplain lakes with an emphasis on the central Amazon. Acta Limnologica Brasil 3: 1–48Google Scholar
  92. Melack JM & MacIntyre S (1991) Phosphorus concentrations, supply and limitation in tropical African lakes and rivers. In: Tiessen H & Frossard E (Eds) Phosphorus Cycles in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Regional Workshop 4: Africa (pp 1–18). Saskatchewan Institute of PedologyGoogle Scholar
  93. Meybeck M (1982) Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transport by world rivers. American J. Science 282: 401–450Google Scholar
  94. Meybeck M (1998) Man and river interface: multiple impacts on water and particulates chemistry illustrated in the Seine river basin. Hydrobiologia 373: 1–17Google Scholar
  95. Moran MA & Hodson RE (1994) Dissolved humic substances of vascular plant origin in a coastal marine environment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39: 762–771Google Scholar
  96. Morris DP & Lewis WM (1988) Phytoplankton nutrient limitation in Colorado mountain lakes. Freshwater Biol. 20: 315–327Google Scholar
  97. Murdiyarso D & Wasriin UR (1995) Estimating land use change and carbon release from tropical forests conversion using remote sensing technique. J. Biogeography 22: 715–721Google Scholar
  98. Neill C, Piccolo MC, Steudler PA, Melillo JM, Feigl BJ & Cerri CC (1995) Nitrogen dynamics in soils of forests and active pastures in the western Brazilian Amazon basin. Soil Biol. Biochem. 27: 1167–1175Google Scholar
  99. Newbold JD, Sweeney BW, Jackson JK & Kaplan LA (1995) Concentrations and export of solutes from six mountain streams in northwestern Costa Rica. J. North American Benthological Society 14: 21–37Google Scholar
  100. Odum HT, Copeland BJ & McMahan E (1972) Coastal Ecosystems of the United States, Vols. 1–4. Conservation FoundationGoogle Scholar
  101. Ojima DS, Galvin KA & Turner BL II (1994) The global impact of land-use change. BioScience 44: 300–304Google Scholar
  102. Olsen Y, Jensen A, Reinertsen H, Borsheim KY, Heldal M & Langeland A (1986) Dependence of the rate of release of phosphorus by Zooplankton on the P∶C ratio in the food supply, as calculated by a recycling model. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31: 34–44Google Scholar
  103. Pedrozo F & Bonetto C (1989) Influence of river regulation on nitrogen and phosphorus mass transport in a large South American river. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management: 4: 59–70Google Scholar
  104. Pedrozo F, Diaz M & Bonetto C (1992) Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Parana River floodplain waterbodies. Arch. Hydrobiol./Suppl. 90: 171–185Google Scholar
  105. Peierls BL, Caraco NF, Pace ML & Cole JJ (1991) Human influence on river nitrogen. Nature 350: 386–387Google Scholar
  106. Peterjohn WT & Correll DL (1984) Nutrient dynamics in an agricultural watershed: observations on the role of a riparian forest. Ecological Society of America 65: 1466–1475Google Scholar
  107. Pinay G & Décamps H (1988) The role of riparian woods in regulating nitrogen fluxes between alluvial aquifer and surface water: A conceptual model. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 2: 507–516Google Scholar
  108. Portnoy JW (1990) Gull contribution of phosphorus and nitrogen to a Cape Cod kettle pond. Hydrobiologia 202: 61–69Google Scholar
  109. Poss R & Sargoni H (1992) Leaching nitrate, calcium and magnesium under maize cultivation on anoxisol in Togo. Fert. Res. 33: 123–133Google Scholar
  110. Prospero JM, Barrett K, Church T, Dentener F, Dunce RA, Galloway JN, Levy II H, Moody J & Quinn P (1996) Atmospheric deposition of nutrients to the North Atlantic Basin. Biogeochemistry 35: 27–73Google Scholar
  111. Quirós R (1990) The Paraná River basin development and the changes in the Lower Basin fisheries. Interciencia 15: 442–451Google Scholar
  112. Rai & Hill (1980)Google Scholar
  113. Redfield AC (1934) On the proportions of organic derivatives in sea water and their relation to the composition of plankton. In: James Johnstone Memorial Volume (pp 169–192). Univ. Press, Liverpool, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  114. Rivera-Monroy VH & Twilley RR (1996) The relative role of denitrification an immobilization in the fate of inorganic nitrogen in mangrove sediments (Terminicos Lagoon, Mexico). Limnol. Oceanogr. 41: 284–296Google Scholar
  115. Rojas Galaviz JL, Vera F, Yanez-Arancibia A & Day JW (1992) Estuarine primary producers: the Termines Lagoon a case study. In: Seeliger U (Ed.) Coastal Plant Communities of Latin America (pp 141–154). Academic Press, NY, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  116. Ross MR (1997) Fisheries Conservation and Management. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  117. Rudel T & Roper J (1996) Regional patterns and historical trends in tropical deforestation, 1976–1990: a qualitative comparative analysis. Ambio 25: 160–166Google Scholar
  118. Saijo Y, Mitamura O, Hino K, Ikusima I, Tunidsi JG, Matsumura-Tundisi T, Sunaga T, Nakamoto N, Fukuhara H, Barbosa FAR, Henry R & Silva VP (1997) Physiochemical features of rivers and lakes in Pantanal wetland. Jpn. J. Limnol. 58: 69–82Google Scholar
  119. Salas HJ & Martino P (1991) A simplified phosphorus trophic state model for warm-water tropical lakes. Water Research 3: 341–350Google Scholar
  120. Salati E, Sylvester-Bradley R & Victoria RL (1982) Regional gains and losses of nitrogen in the Amazon Basin. Plant and Soil 67: 367–376Google Scholar
  121. Salati E, Victoria RL, Martinelli LA & Richey JE (1991) Forests: their role in global change, with special reference to the Brazilian Amazon. In: Climate Change: Science, Impacts and Policy: Proceedings of the Second World Climate Conference (pp 391–395)Google Scholar
  122. Saunders JF & Lewis WM Jr. (1988) Transport of phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon by the Apure River,Venezuela. Biogeochemistry 5: 323–342Google Scholar
  123. Seeliger U (1992) Coastal Plant Communities of Latin America. Academic Press, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  124. Seitzinger SP (1988) Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems: ecological and geochemical significance. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 702–724Google Scholar
  125. Setaro FV & Melack JM (1984) Responses of phytoplankton to experimental nutrient enrichment in an amazon flood plain lake. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29: 972–984Google Scholar
  126. Seyfried MS & Rao PSC (1991) Nutrient leaching loss from two contrasting cropping systems in the humid tropics. Trop. Agric. 68: 9–18Google Scholar
  127. Short FT, Davis MW, Gibson RA & Zimmermann CF (1985) Evidence for phosphorus limitation in carbonate sediments of the seagrass syringodium filiforme. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 20: 419–430Google Scholar
  128. Shukla J, Nobre C & Sellers P (1990) Amazon deforestation and climate change. Science 247: 1322–1325Google Scholar
  129. Sjodin A, Lewis WM Jr & Saunders JF (1997) Denitrification as a component of the nitrogen budget for a large plains river. Biogeochem. 39: 327–342Google Scholar
  130. Skole DL, Chomentowski WH, Salas WA & Nobre AD (1994) Physical and human dimensions of deforestation in Amazonia. BioScience 44: 314–324Google Scholar
  131. Smith SV (1984) Phosphorus versus nitrogen limitation in the marine environment. Limnology and Oceanography 29: 1149–1160Google Scholar
  132. Søballe DM & Kimmel BL (1987) A large-scale comparison of factors influencing phytoplankton abundance in rivers, lakes, and impoundments. Ecology 68: 1943–1954Google Scholar
  133. Soto D & Stackner J (1996) Oligotrophic lakes in southern Chile and in British Columbia: Basis for their resilience to present and future disturbances. In: Lawford, Alaback & Fuentes (Eds) High Latitude Rain Forest of the West Coast of the Americas. Climate, Hydrology, Ecology and Conservation (pp 266–280). Springer, NY, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  134. Sterner RW (1990) The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus resupplied by herbivores: Zooplankton and the algal competitive arena. Am. Nat. 136: 209–229Google Scholar
  135. Sterner RW & Hessen DO (1994) Algal nutrient limitation and the nutrition of aquatic herbivores. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 25: 1–29Google Scholar
  136. Sterner RW, Elser JJ, Fee EJ, Guildford SJ & Chrzanowski TH (1997) The light:nutrient ratio in lakes: the balance of energy and materials affects ecosystem structure and function. Am. Nat. 150: 663–684Google Scholar
  137. Sterner RW, Hagemeier DD, Smith WL & Smith RF (1993) Phytoplankton nutrient limitation and food quality for Daphnia. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38: 857–871Google Scholar
  138. Sur HS, Mastana PS & Hadda MS (1992) Effect of rates and modes of mulch application on runoff, sediment and nitrogen loss on cropped and uncropped fields. Trop. Agric. 69: 319–322Google Scholar
  139. Sussman RW, Green GM & Sussman LK (1994) Satellite Imagery, Human Ecology, Anthropology, and Deforestation in Madagascar. Human Ecology 22: 333–349Google Scholar
  140. Teixeira C & Tundisi JG (1981) The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus enrichments on phytoplankton in the region of Ubatuba, Brazil. Bolm Inst. Oceanogr. 30: 77–86Google Scholar
  141. Thorm BG (1982) Mangrove ecology — a geomorphological perspective. In: Clough BF (Ed.) Mangrove Ecosystems in Australia (pp 3–17). Australian National University Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  142. Tilman D (1982) Resource Competition and Community Structure. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  143. Tundisi JG (1981) Typology of reservoirs in southern Brazil. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 21: 1031–1039Google Scholar
  144. Tundisi JG (1987) Local community involvement in environmental planning an management: the Lobo-Broa Reservoir case study. Regional Development Dialogue 8: 133–142Google Scholar
  145. Tundisi JG (1994) Tropical South America: present and perspectives. In: R Margalef (Ed.) Limnology Now: A Paradigm of Planetary Problems (pp 353–424). Elsevier Science, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  146. Tundisi JG & Matsumura-Tundisi T (1984) Comparative limnological studies at three lakes in tropical Brazil. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 22: 1310–1314Google Scholar
  147. Tundisi JG, Matsumura-Tundisi T, Calijuri MC & Novo EML (1991) Comparative limnology of five reservoirs in the Middle Tietê River, S. Paulo State. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24: 1489–1496Google Scholar
  148. Turner RE & Rabalais NN (1991) Changes in Mississippi River water quality this century — implications for coastal food webs. BioScience 41: 140–147Google Scholar
  149. Twilley RR (1995) Properties of mangrove ecosystems related to the energy signature of coastal environments. In: Hall CAS (Ed.) Maximum Power: The Ideas and Applications of H. T. Odum (pp 43–62). University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  150. Twilley RR & Day JW (1998) The productivity and nutrient cycling of mangrove ecosystem. In: Yanez-Arancibia A & Lara-Dominguez AL (Eds) Mangrove Ecosystems in Tropical America: Structure, Function, and Management (pp 131–156). EPOMEX Scientific Series 3, University of Campeche, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  151. Uhl C & Jordan CF (1984) Succession and nutrient dynamics following forest cutting and burning in Amazonia. Ecology 65: 1476–1490Google Scholar
  152. Urabe J, Nakanishi M & Kawabata K (1995) Contribution of metazoan plankton to the cycling of N and P in Lake Biwa. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40: 232–241Google Scholar
  153. Uttormark PD, Chapin JD & Green KM (1974) Estimating nutrient loadings of lakes from non-point sources. United States Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA-660/3-74-020, Washington, DC, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  154. Vallentyne JR (1974) The algal bowl. Canadian Fisheries and Marine Service Miscellaneous Special Publication 22, Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  155. Victoria RL, Martinelli, LA, Martatti J & Richey JE (1991) Mechanisms of water recycling in the Amazon Basin: isotopic insights. Ambio. 20: 384–387Google Scholar
  156. Villar CA, de Cabo L & Bonetto CA (1996) Macrophytic primary production and nutrient concentrations In: A Deltaic Floodplain Marsh Of The Lower Paraná River. Hydrobiologia 330: 59–66Google Scholar
  157. Viner AB (1975) The supply of minerals to tropical rivers and lakes (Uganda). In: Hasler AD (Ed.) Coupling of Land and Water Systems (pp 227–261). Springer-Verlag, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  158. Vitousek PM (1984) Litterfall, nutrient cycling, and nutrient limitation in tropical forests. Ecology 65: 1476–1490Google Scholar
  159. Vitousek PM & Howarth RW (1991) Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: How can it occur? Biogeochem. 13: 87–115Google Scholar
  160. Vitousek PM & Melillo JM (1979) Nitrate losses from disturbed forests: patterns and mechanisms. Forest Sci. 25: 605–619Google Scholar
  161. Vitousek PM, Aber JD & Tilman DG (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecological Applications 7: 737–750Google Scholar
  162. Vollenweider RA (1968) Water management research. OECD, Paris, DAS/CSI/68.27Google Scholar
  163. Vorosmarty CJ, Sharma KP, Lough JA (1997) The storage and aging of continental runoff in large reservoir systems of the world. Ambio 26: 210–222Google Scholar
  164. Vought LBM, Dahl J & Lacoursiere JO (1994) Nutrient retention in riparian ecotones. Ambio 23: 342–359Google Scholar
  165. Welsh BL, Whitlatch RB & Bohlen WF (1982) Relationship between physical characteristics and organic carbon sources as a basis for comparing estuarines in southern New England. In: Kennedy VS (Ed.) Estuarine comparisons (pp 53–67). Academic Press, NY, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  166. Williams MR & Melack JM (1997) Solute export from forested and partially deforested catchments in the central Amazon. Biogeochemistry 38: 67–102Google Scholar
  167. Williams MR, Fisher TR & Melack JM (1997a) Chemical composition and deposition of rain in the central Amazon, Brazil. Atmosphere & Environment 31: 207–217Google Scholar
  168. Williams MR, Fisher TR & Melack JM (1997b) Solute dynamics in soil water and groundwater in a central Amazon catchment undergoing deforestation. Biogeochemistry, in pressGoogle Scholar
  169. Wollast R, Mackenzie FT & Chou L (1993) Interactions of C, N, P, and S biogeochemical cycles and global change. NATO ASI series. Series I, Global environmental change. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  170. World Resources Institute (1996) World Resources 1996-97. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  171. Wurtsbaugh WA, Vincent WF, Alfaro Tapia R, Vincent CL, & Richerson PJ (1985) Nutrient limitation of algal growth and nitrogen fixation in a tropical alpine lake, Lake Titicaca (Peru/Bolivia). Freshwater Biology 15: 185–195Google Scholar
  172. Yanez-Aranciba A (1985) Fish Community Ecology in Estuaries and Coastal Lagoon: Towards an Ecosystem Integration. UNAM-PUAL-ICML Editorial Universitaria, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  173. Yanez-Aranciba A (1987) Lagunas costeras y estuarios: cronologia, criterios y conceptos para una clasificacion ecologica de sistemas costeros. In: Watanabe S (Ed.) Ecossistemas Coateiros da Costa Sul e Sudeste Brasileira (pp 1–38). Academia de Ciencias, Sao PauloGoogle Scholar
  174. Yanez-Aranciba A & Lara-Dominguez AL (1998) Mangrove Ecosystems in Tropical America: Structure, Function and Management. EPOMEX Scientific Series 3, University of Campeche, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  175. Yoshioka P, Owen G & Pesante D (1985) Spatial and temporal variations in Caribbean Zooplankton near Puerto Rico. J. Plankton Research 7: 733–751Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Downing
    • 1
  • M. Mcclain
    • 2
  • R. Twilley
    • 3
  • J. M. Melack
    • 4
  • J. Elser
    • 5
  • N. N. Rabalais
    • 6
  • W. M. LewisJr.
    • 7
  • R. E. Turner
    • 8
  • J. Corredor
    • 9
  • D. Soto
    • 10
  • A. Yanez-Arancibia
    • 11
  • J. A. Kopaska
    • 1
  • R. W. Howarth
    • 12
  1. 1.Department of Animal EcologyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.RSMAS-MGGUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of Southwestern LouisianaLafayetteUSA
  4. 4.Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  5. 5.Department of ZoologyArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  6. 6.Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvinUSA
  7. 7.Center for Limnology, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental SciencesUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  8. 8.Department of Oceanography and Coastal SciencesLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  9. 9.Department of Marine ScienceUniversity of Puerto RicoMayaguez
  10. 10.Facultad de Pesquierías y Oceanografía, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales y ExactasUniversidad Austral de ChilePuerto MonttChile
  11. 11.Department of Coastal ResourcesInstitute of Ecology A.C.XalapaMexico
  12. 12.Section of Ecology and SystematicsCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations