Advertisement

Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 277–292 | Cite as

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: Schizophrenia

  • Frank Schneider
  • Brigitte Rockstroh
  • Hans Heimann
  • Werner Lutzenberger
  • Regina Mattes
  • Thomas Elbert
  • Niels Birbaumer
  • Mathias Bartels
Original Articles

Abstract

Slow cortical potentials (SCPs) are considered to reflect the regulation of attention resources and cortical excitability in cortical neuronal networks. Impaired attentional functioning, as found in patients with schizophrenic disorders, may covary with impaired SCP regulation. This hypothesis was tested using a self-regulation paradigm. Twelve medicated male schizophrenic inpatients and 12 healthy male controls received continuous feedback of their SCPs, during intervals of 8 s each, by means of a visual stimulus (a stylized rocket) moving horizontally across a TV screen. The position of the feedback stimulus was a linear function of the integrated SCP at each point in time during the feedback interval. Subjects were required to increase or reduce negative SCPs (referred to pretrial baseline) depending on the presentation of a discriminative stimulus. The correct response was indicated by the amount of forward movement of the feedback stimulus and by monetary rewards. Schizophrenics participated in 20 sessions (each comprising 110 trials), while controls participated in 5 sessions. Compared with the healthy controls, schizophrenics showed no significant differentiation between negativity increase and negativity suppression during the first sessions. However, in the last 3 sessions, patients achieved differentiation similar to controls, demonstrating the acquisition of SCP control after extensive training.

Descriptor key words

Slow cortical potentials schizophrenia biofeedback instrumental learning CNV 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abraham, P., Docherty, T. B., Spencer, S. C., Verhey, R. H., Lamers, T. B., Emonds, P. M., Timsit-Berthier, M., Gerono, A., & Rousseau, J. (1980). An international pilot study of CNV in mental illness. In H. H. Kornhuber & L. Deecke (Eds.),Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain. Electrocortical potentials, behavior and clinical use. Progress in Brain Research (Vol. 54, pp. 535–542). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  2. Andreasen, N. C. (1982). Negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Definition and reliability.Archives of General Psychiatry, 39 784–788.Google Scholar
  3. Birbaumer, N., Elbert, T., Canavan, A. G. M., & Rockstroh, B. (1990). Slow potentials of the cerebral cortex and behavior.Physiological Review, 70 1–41.Google Scholar
  4. Birbaumer, N., Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B., Daum, I., & Wolf, P. (1992). Clinical-psychological treatment of epilepsy. In T. Elbert, I. Florin, & J. Eliegenbaum (Eds.),Perspective and promises in clinical psychology. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  5. Broadbent, D. E. (1970). Stimulus set and response set: Two kinds of selective attention. In D. J. Mostofsky (Ed.),Attention: Contemporary theory and analysis. (pp. 51–60). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  6. Davis, J. M. (1974). Dose equivalence of the antipsychotic drugs.Journal of Psychiatric Research, 11 65–69.Google Scholar
  7. Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1980). Biofeedback of slow cortical potentials. I.Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 48 293–301.Google Scholar
  8. Elbert, T., Lutzenberger, W., Rockstroh, B., & Birbaumer, N. (1983). When regulation of slow brain potentials fails — A contribution to the psychophysiology of perceptual aberration and anhedonia. In C. Perris, D. Kemali, & M. Koukkou-Lehmann (Eds.),Clinical neurophysiological aspects of psychopathological conditions (pp. 99–106). Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  9. Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L., Fleiss, J., & Cohen, J. (1976). The Global Assessment Scale. A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance.Archives of General Psychiatry, 33 766–771.Google Scholar
  10. Fuster, J. M. (1989).The prefrontal cortex: Anatomy, physiology and neuropsychology of the frontal lobe (2nd ed.). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  11. Ingvar, D. H., & Lassen, J. (1977). Cerebral function, metabolism and circulation.Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 64 (Suppl.), 55.Google Scholar
  12. Knott, J. R., & Tecce, J. J. (1978). Event-related potentials and psychopathology: A summary of issues and discussion. In D. A. Otto (Ed.),Multidisciplinary perspectives in event-related brain potential research (pp. 347–354). Washington: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  13. Lutzenberger, W., Birbaumer, N., Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B., Bippus, W., & Breidt, R. (1980). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in normal subjects and patients with frontal lobe lesions. In H. H. Kornhuber & L. Deecke (Eds.),Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain. Electrical potentials, behavior and clinical use (pp. 427–430). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  14. McCallum, W. C. (1988). Potentials related to expectancy, preparation and motor activity. In T. W. Picton (Ed.),Human event-related potentials — Handbook of electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology (Vol. 3, pp. 427–453). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  15. McCallum, W. C., & Abraham, P. (1973). The contingent negative variation in psychosis. In W. C. McCallum & J. R. Knott (Eds.),Event-related slow potentials of the brain [Special issue].Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 33 (Suppl), 329–335.Google Scholar
  16. Neale, J. M., & Oltmanns, T. (1980).Schizophrenia. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness.Neuropsychologia, 9 97–113.Google Scholar
  18. Overall, D. E., & Gorham, D. E. (1962). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale,Psychological Reports, 10 799–812.Google Scholar
  19. Pritchard, W. S. (1986). Cognitive event-related potential correlates in schizophrenia.Psychological Bulletin, 100 43–66.Google Scholar
  20. Roberts, L., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Elbert, T., & Rockstroh, B. (1989). Self-report during feedback regulation of slow cortical potentials.Psychophysiology, 26 392–403.Google Scholar
  21. Rockstroh, B., Elbert, T., Canavan, A., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1989).Slow cortical potentials and behaviour (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Urban & Schwarzenberg.Google Scholar
  22. Rockstroh, B., Elbert, T., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1990). Biofeedback: Evaluation and therapy in children with attentional dysfunctions. In A. Rothenberger (Ed.),Brain and behavior in child psychiatry (pp. 345–357). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. Schneider, F., Heimann, H., Mattes, R., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1992). Self-Regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: Depression.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 17 203–214.Google Scholar
  24. Schneider, F., Elbert, T., Heimann, H., Welker, A., Stetter, F., Mattes, R., Birbaumer, N., & Mann, K. (1993). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients. Alcohol dependency.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 18(1).Google Scholar
  25. Skinner, J. E., & Yingling, C. D. (1977). Central gating mechanisms that regulate event-related potentials and behavior. In J. Desmedt (Ed.),Attention, voluntary contraction and event-related cerebral potentials (pp. 30–69). Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  26. Strauss, M. E. (Ed.) (1989). Special section: Schizophrenia research [Special issue].Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 339–380.Google Scholar
  27. Timsit-Berthier, M., Gerono, A., Rousseau, J., Mantanus, H., Abraham, P., Verhey, F. H. M., Lamers, T., & Edmonds, P. (1984). An international pilot study of CNV in mental illness — Second report. In R. Karrer, J. Cohen, & P. Tueting (Eds.),Brain and information. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 425 629–637.Google Scholar
  28. Timsit-Berthier, M., Mantanus, H., Marissiaux, P., Ansseau, M., Doumont, A., Geenen, V., & Legros, J. (1986). CNV and dopamine receptor reactivity: Correlations with the apomorphine test. In W. C. McCallum, R. Zappoli, & F. Denoth (Eds.),Cerebral psychophysiology: Studies in event related potentials (pp. 403–405). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  29. Verhey, F., Lamers, T., & Emonds, P. (1984). A second baseline in relating ERP and measured psychopathology. In R. Karrer, J. Cohen, & P. Tueting (Eds.),Brain and information. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 425 638–644.Google Scholar
  30. Verhey, F., Lamers, T., Timsit-Berthier, M., Mantanus, H., Rousseau, J., Gerono, A., Abraham, P., Mumford, J., Spencer, S., & White, G. (1986). An international pilot study of CNV in mental illness. III. In W. C. McCallum, R. Zappoli, & F. Denoth (Eds.),Cerebral psychophysiology: Studies in event related potentials (pp. 458–460). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  31. Walter, W. G., Cooper, R., Aldridge, V., McCallum, W. C., & Winter, A. L. (1964). Contingent negative variation: An electrical sign of association and expectancy in the human brain.Nature, 203 380–384.Google Scholar
  32. Wittchen, H.-U., Zaudig, M., Schramm, E., Spengler, P., Mombour, W., Klug, J., & Horn, R. (1987).Strukturiertes Klinisches Interview für DSM-III-R (Testversion). Weinheim: Beltz.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Schneider
    • 1
    • 2
  • Brigitte Rockstroh
    • 1
  • Hans Heimann
    • 1
  • Werner Lutzenberger
    • 1
  • Regina Mattes
    • 1
  • Thomas Elbert
    • 1
  • Niels Birbaumer
    • 3
  • Mathias Bartels
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TübingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia
  3. 3.University of Tübingen and Università Degli StudiPadovaItaly

Personalised recommendations