Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 201–209

Glucose transfer into rat brain during acute and chronic hyperglycemia

  • Robert B. Duckrow
Original Contributions


Chronic hyperglycemia has been reported to decrease the maximum velocity of glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier by 30 to 40%. However, available measurements of brain glucose content during chronic hyperglycemia are consistent with an unaltered transport system. Because of this discrepancy the brain capillary permeability-surface area product (PA) was measured in awake-restrained rats during acute and chronic hyperglycemia. Acute hyperglycemia was produced by intraperitoneal injection of glucose, and chronic hyperglycemia was produced by treatment with streptozotocin. PA was measured using an intravenous tracer method. PA decreased during hyperglycemia, consistent with saturation kinetics for transfer. However, PA was similar in acutely and chronically hyperglycemic rats. These data suggest that down-regulation of facilitated glucose transport into the brain does not occur during chronic hyperglycemia.

Key words

glucose transport blood-brain barrier hyperglycemia streptozotocin diabetes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bachelard, H. S., Daniel, P. M., Love, E. R., and Pratt, O. E. (1973). The transport of glucose into the brain of the ratin vivo.J. Physiol. (Lond.) 222: 149.Google Scholar
  2. Blackshear, P. J., and Alberti, K. G. M. M. (1974). Experimental diabetic ketoacidosis.Biochem. J. 138: 107–117.Google Scholar
  3. Cremer, J. E., Cunningham, V. J., and Seville, M. P. (1983). Relationships between extraction and metabolism of glucose, blood flow, and tissue blood volume in regions of rat brain.J. Cereb. Blood Flow and Metabol. 3: 291–302.Google Scholar
  4. Crone, C. (1965). Facilitated transfer of glucose from blood into brain tissue.J. Physiol. (Lond.) 181: 103–113.Google Scholar
  5. Cunningham, V. J., Hargreaves, R. J., Pelling, D., and Moorhouse, S. R. (1986). Regional blood-brain glucose transfer in the rat: A novel double-membrane kinetic analysis.J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabol. 6: 305–314.Google Scholar
  6. Duckrow, R. B., and Bryan, R. M. (1987). Regional cerebral glucose utilization during hyperglycemia.J. Neurochem. 48: 989–993.Google Scholar
  7. Duckrow, R. B., Beard, D. C., and Brennan, R. W. (1987). Regional cerebral blood flow decreases during chronic and acute hyperglycemia.Stroke 18: 52–58.Google Scholar
  8. Gjedde, A. (1983). Modulation of substrate transport to the brain.Acta Neurol. Scand. 67: 3–25.Google Scholar
  9. Gjedde, A., and Christensen, O. (1984). Estimates of Michaelis-Menten constants for the two membranes of the brain endothelium.J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabol. 4: 241–249.Google Scholar
  10. Gjedde, A., and Crone, C. (1981). Blood-brain glucose transfer: Repression in chronic hyperglycemia.Science 214: 456–457.Google Scholar
  11. Gjedde, A., and Rasmussen, M. (1980). Pentobarbital anesthesia reduces blood-brain glucose transfer in the rat.J. Neurochem. 35: 1382–1387.Google Scholar
  12. Harik, S. I., McCracken, K. A., and LaManna, J. C. (1986). Regional blood-brain barrier transport of glucose during acute and chronic hyperglycemia in rats.Abstr. Soc. Neurosci. 12: 1261.Google Scholar
  13. Harik, S. I., Gravina, S. A., and Kalaria, R. N. (1987). The glucose transporter of the blood-brain barrier in experimental diabetes mellitus.Abstr. Soc. Neurosci. 13: 1249.Google Scholar
  14. Hawkins, R. A., Mans, A. M., and Biebuyck, J. F. (1982). Amino acid supply to individual cerebral structures in awake and anesthetized rats.Am. J. Physiol. 242: E1-E11.Google Scholar
  15. Hawkins, R. A., Mans, A. M., Davis, D. W., Hibbard, L. S., and Lu, D. M. (1983). Glucose availability to individual cerebral structures is correlated to glucose metabolism.J. Neurochem. 40: 1013–1018.Google Scholar
  16. Lund-Andersen, H. (1979). Transport of glucose from blood to brain.Physiol. Rev. 59: 305–352.Google Scholar
  17. McCall, A. L., Millington, W. R., and Wurtman, R. J. (1982). Metabolic fuel and amino acid transport into the brain in experimental diabetes mellitus.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 5406–5410.Google Scholar
  18. McCall, A. L., Fixman, L. B., Fleming, N., Tornheim, K., Chick, W., and Ruderman, N. B. (1986). Chronic hypoglycemia increases brain glucose transport.Am. J. Physiol. 251: E442-E447.Google Scholar
  19. Pappenheimer, J. R., and Setchell, B. P. (1973). Cerebral glucose transport and oxygen consumption in sheep and rabbits.J. Physiol. (Land.) 233: 529–554.Google Scholar
  20. Ruderman, N. B., Ross, P. S., Berger, M., and Goodman, M. N. (1974). Regulation of glucose and ketone-body metabolism in brain of anaesthetized rats.J. Biochem. 138: 1–10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert B. Duckrow
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine (Division of Neurology)The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center of The Pennsylvania State UniversityHershey

Personalised recommendations