Marketing Letters

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 253–265

Principles involving marketing policies: An empirical assessment

  • J. Scott Armstrong
  • Randall L. Schultz


We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these statements were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical evidence, useful, or surprising. None met all the criteria. Nine were judged to be nearly as correct when their wording was reversed.

Key words

Marketing Principles Price Product Promotion Place 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Scott Armstrong
    • 1
  • Randall L. Schultz
    • 2
  1. 1.The Wharton SchoolUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia
  2. 2.College of Business AdministrationUniversity of IowaIowa City

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