Zoomorphologie

, Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 279–306 | Cite as

Classification of amphipod compound eyes — The fine structure of the ommatidial units (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

  • Eric Hallberg
  • Heimo L. Nilsson
  • Rolf Elofsson
Article

Summary

The ultrastructure of the compound eyes of 13 amphipod species has been investigated. An amphipod type of compound eye can be characterized by the constellation and consistency of a number of morphological features, most of which are also found in other compound eyes. The amphipod eye falls into four sub-categories (types). The ampeliscid type has a tripartite aberrant lens eye; the lysianassid type has a reduced or no dioptric apparatus and a hypertrophied rhabdom; the hyperid type possesses a large number of ommatidial units with long crystalline cones and dark instead of reflecting accessory pigment; and finally, the gammarid type can be interpreted as a generalized amphipod type. The lysianassid type is adapted to low light intensities and demonstrates convergent development with the compound eyes of other deep-sea crustaceans. The ampeliscid type is more similar to the gammarid type. The type characterization of the amphipod compound eye might well serve as a basis and incentive for functional studies also revealing adaptational mechanisms.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ball, E.E.: Fine structure of the compound eyes of the midwater amphipodPhronima in relation to behaviour and habitat. Tissue Cell9, 521–536 (1977)Google Scholar
  2. Debaisieux, P.: Les yeux des crustacés. Cellule50, 9–122 (1944)Google Scholar
  3. Delia Valle, A.: Gammarini. Fauna Flora Golfes Neapel20, 1–948 (1893)Google Scholar
  4. Donner, K.O.: On vision inPontoporeia affinis andP. femorata (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Comments Biol.41, 1–17 (1971)Google Scholar
  5. Edwards, A.S.: The structure of the eye ofLigia oceanica L. Tissue Cell1, 217–228 (1969)Google Scholar
  6. Eguchi, E., Waterman, T.H.: Fine structure patterns in crustacean rhabdoms. In: The functional organization of the compound eye. (C.G. Bernhard, ed.), pp. 105–124. London: Pergamon Press 1966Google Scholar
  7. Elofsson, R.: Rhabdom adaptation and its phylogenetic significance. Zool. Scr.5, 97–101 (1976)Google Scholar
  8. Elofsson, R., Hallberg, E.: Correlation of ultrastructure and chemical composition of crustacean chromatophore pigment. J. Ultrastruct. Res.44, 421–429 (1973)Google Scholar
  9. Elofsson, R., Hallberg, E.: Compound eyes of some deep-sea and fiord mysid crustaceans. Acta Zool. Stockholm58, 169–177 (1977)Google Scholar
  10. Elofsson, R., Odselius, R.: The anostracan rhabdom and the basement membrane. An ultrastructural study of theArtemia compound eye (Crustacea). Acta Zool. Stockholm56, 141–153 (1975)Google Scholar
  11. Ercolini, A.: Sulla struttura degli occhi composti diTalitrus saltator Montagu (Crustacea — Amphipoda). Redia49, 129–135 (1965)Google Scholar
  12. Hallberg, E.: The fine structure of the compound eyes of mysids (Crustacea: Mysidacea). Cell Tissue Res.184, 45–65 (1977)Google Scholar
  13. Hanström, B.: Neue Untersuchungen über Sinnesorgane und Nervensystem der Crustaceen II. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Anat. Ontog. Tiere56, 387–520 (1933)Google Scholar
  14. Karnovsky, M.J.: A formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde fixative of high osmolarity for use in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol.27, 137A-138A (1965)Google Scholar
  15. Kunze, P.: Histologische Untersuchungen zum Bau des Auges vonOcypode cursor (Brachyura). Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat.82, 466–478 (1967)Google Scholar
  16. Laughlin, S.B., Menzel, R., Snyder, A.W.: Membranes, dichroism and receptor sensitivity. In: Photoreceptor optics (A.W. Snyder and R. Menzel, eds.), pp. 237–262. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1975Google Scholar
  17. Meyer-Rochow, V.B.: Larval and adult eye of the western rock lobster(Panulirus longipes). Cell Tissue Res.162, 439–457 (1975)Google Scholar
  18. Meyer-Rochow, V.B.: The eyes of mesopelagic curstaceans. II.Streetsia challngeri (Amphipoda). Cell Tissue Res.186, 337–349 (1978)Google Scholar
  19. Michel, A., Anders, F.: Über die Pigmente im Auge vonGammarus pulex L. Naturwissenschaften41, 72 (1954)Google Scholar
  20. Nässel, D.R.: The retina and retinal projection on the lamina ganglionaris of the crayfishPacifastacus leniusculus (Dana). J. Comp. Neur.167, 341–360 (1976)Google Scholar
  21. Nemanic, P.: Fine structure of the compound eye ofPorcellio scaber in light and dark adaptation. Tissue Cell7, 453–468 (1975)Google Scholar
  22. Nilsson, H.L.: The fine structure of the compound eyes of shallow-water asellotes,Jaera albifrons Leach andAsellus aquaticus L. (Crustacea: Isopoda). Acta Zool. Stockholm59, 69–84 (1978)Google Scholar
  23. Parker, G.H.: The compound eyes in crustaceans. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. Univ.21, 45–140 (1891)Google Scholar
  24. Richardson, K.C., Jarret, L., Finke, E.H.: Embedding in epoxy resins for ultrathin sectioning in electron microscopy. Stain Technol.35, 313–323 (1960)Google Scholar
  25. Sars, G.O.: An account of the Crustacea of Norway, Vol. 1. Amphipoda. Christiania-Copenhagen: Alb. Cammermeyer 1895Google Scholar
  26. Schellenberg, A.: Amphipoda des nordischen Plankton. In: Nordisches Plankton III, pp. 589–722. Kiel-Leipzig: Lipsius & Tischer 1927Google Scholar
  27. Stephensen, K.: Storkrebs II. Ringkrebs 1. Tanglopper (amphipoder). København: G.E.C. Gad 1928Google Scholar
  28. Strauss, E., Das Gammaridenauge. Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. Valdivia.20, 1–84 (1926)Google Scholar
  29. Svensson, E.: Über die Augen und das Gehirn vonHaploops tubicola Lilj. Ark. Zool.25A/18, 1–15 (1933)Google Scholar
  30. Wimpenny, R.S.: The plankton of the sea. London: Faber and Faber 1966Google Scholar
  31. Woltereck, R.: Die Hyperiidea Gammaroidea. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv. Univ.52, 145–168 (1909)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Hallberg
    • 1
  • Heimo L. Nilsson
    • 1
  • Rolf Elofsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of LundLundSweden

Personalised recommendations