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Zoomorphologie

, Volume 95, Issue 3, pp 213–233 | Cite as

Structure et ultrastructure comparées de l'intestin chez plusieurs espéces de Copépodes Calanoides (Crustacea)

  • Jean Arnaud
  • Michel Brunet
  • Jacques Mazza
Article

Résumé

Ce travail porte sur 7 espèces de Copépodes Calanoides, choisies pour la variété de leur régime alimentaire: essentiellement herbivore (Calanus helgolandicus), très omnivore (Nannocalanus minor,Temora stylifera,Centropages typicus,Labidocera wollastoni,Acartia clausi) ou nettement carnivore (Candacia armata). Sur le plan topographique, le tube digestif de ces 7 Copépodes présente une homogénéité certaine, en particulier au niveau de l'intestin moyen, toujours formé par une succession de 3 zones caractéristiques: zone I à cellules à plateau strié; zone II à grandes cellules vacuolaires; zone III à cellules aplaties. Les principales différences relevées concernent le mode d'abouchement de l'oesophage avec l'intestin moyen, la présence ou l'absence d'un diverticule dans la région antérieure de l'intestin moyen, la position, dorsale ou ventrale, de la zone III. Un mésentère d'épaisseur très variable, souvent chargé de gouttelettes lipidiques, entoure l'intestin moyen dont il est seulement séparé, de façon discontinue, par une fine musculature. Au point de vue ultrastructural, nous avons mis en évidence 3 types fondamentaux de cellules: cellules R à grandes microvillosités et à réticulum endoplasmique lisse ou peu granulaire; cellules F à réticulum endoplasmique très granulaire et phagosomes souvent volumineux; cellules B renfermant un appareil vacuolaire avec 5 stades principaux d'évolution (B1 à B5). La structure fine de chacune des catégories cellulaires précitées offre une remarquable constance chez toutes les espèces considérées et, comme au niveau structural, aucune des variations mises en évidence ne peut être reliée à un mode de nutrition particulier. L'analyse détaillée de leurs caractères ultrastructuraux permet d'avancer un rôle d'absorption pour les cellules R, de digestion pour les cellules F et B et, peut-être, d'excrétion pour les cellules B.

Comparative structure and ultrastructure of the midgut in several species of calanoid copepods

Summary

The present study deals with 7 species of Calanoid Copepods selected for alimentary diet variety: essentially herbivorous diet (Calanus helgolandicus), or very omnivorous diet (Nannocalanus minor, Temora stylifer a, Centropages typicus, Labidocera wollastoni, Acartia clausi), or extremely carnivorous diet (Candacia armatd). From the topographical point of view, the alimentary canal of the Calanoids presents a great homogeneity, especially on a level with the midgut which consists of three successive zones: zone I with striated border cells; zone II with large vacuolar cells; zone III with flattened cells. The major differences between species concern the junction mode between oesophagus and midgut, the presence or the absence of an anterior midgut diverticulum, the zone III in a dorsal or a ventral situation. A mesentery of greatly varying thickness, often filled with lipid droplets, surrounds the midgut of which it is discontinuously separated by a thin musculature. From the ultrastructural point of view three main cell types have been distinguished: R-cells are large microvillar and smooth or lightly granular reticulum-cells; F-cells are extremely granular reticulum and often large phagosomal cells; B-cells are vacuolar cells developing in five successive stages of evolution (Bl to B5). As on an optical microscopic level, the fine structure of each type presents an excellent degree of invariability in all the 7 species and none of the observed variations is to connect with a peculiar nutritional mode. From a cell ultrastructural detailed analysis we propose an absorptive function for R-cells, a digestive function for F- and B-cells and perhaps an excretory function for the B-cells also.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Arnaud
    • 1
  • Michel Brunet
    • 1
  • Jacques Mazza
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Biologie animale (Plancton)Université de ProvenceMarseille Cedex 3France

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