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Journal of Medical Systems

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 163–174 | Cite as

Sound graphs: A numerical data analysis method for the blind

  • Douglass L. Mansur
  • Merra M. Blattner
  • Kenneth I. Joy
Articles

Abstract

A system for the creation of computer-generated sound patterns of two-dimensional line graphs is described. The objectives of the system are to provide the blind with a means of understanding line graphs in the holistic manner used by those with sight. A continuously varying pitch is used to represent motion in the x direction. To test the feasibility of using sound to represent graphs, a prototype system was developed and human factors experimenters were performed. Fourteen subjects were used to compare the tactile-graph methods normally used by the blind to these new sound graphs. It was discovered that mathematical concepts such as symmetry, monotonicity, and the slopes of lines could be determined quickly using sound. Even better performance may be expected with additional training. The flexibility, speed, cost-effectiveness, and greater measure of independence provided the blind or sight-impaired using these methods was demonstrated.

Keywords

Data Analysis Numerical Data Human Factor Factor Experimenter Mathematical Concept 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglass L. Mansur
    • 1
    • 2
  • Merra M. Blattner
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kenneth I. Joy
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.From the Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermore
  2. 2.the University of California DavisDavis
  3. 3.the Department of Biomathematics, M.D. Anderson Cancer Research HospitalUniversity of Texas Medical CenterHouston

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