Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 267–284 | Cite as

Unusual polymethyl alkenes in tsetse flies acting as abstinon inGlossina morsitans

  • D. A. Carlson
  • Y. Schlein
Article

Abstract

The major alkene of the male tsetse fly,Glossina morsitans morsitans, was isolated for characterization by thin-layer and gas chromatography (GC). The mass spectra of the alkene and the alkene DMDS derivative indicated one isomer, 19,23-dimethyltritriacont-1-ene. The material is present at 1–2μg/male fly and is partially transferred to the female preparatory to or during mating. A dose-dependent antiaphrodisiac effect was seen with exposed male flies using the isolated natural product, with 2 and 4μg causing 80% loss of copulatory attempts, and 10μg extinguishing the attempts. This effect was increased by addition of male-produced alkane. This compound and a 31-carbon homolog also appear inG. m. submorsitans. Similar quantities of alkenes that are species-specific appear in all tsetse males. Structures of male-produced trimethylalkenes that appear in two other species,G. palpalis palpalis andG. fuscipes fuscipes, were investigated.

Key Words

Mating inhibitor abstinon stimulatory cuticle waves diptera extract hydrocarbon dimethylalkene trimethylalkene aphrodisiac Diptera Muscidae Glossina morsitans morsitans tsetse fly 19,23-dimethyltritriacont-1-ene 

References

  1. Carlson, D.A., andLangley, P.A. 1986. Tsetse alkenes: Appearance of novel sex-specific compounds as a result of mating.J. Insect Physiol. 32:781–790.Google Scholar
  2. Carlson, D.A., andMackley, J.W. 1985. Polyunsaturated hydrocarbons in the stable fly.J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1485–1496.Google Scholar
  3. Carlson, D.A., Langley, P.A., andHuyton, P. 1978. Sex pheromone of the tsetse fly: Isolation, identification and synthesis of contact aphrodisiacs.Science 201:750–753.Google Scholar
  4. Carlson, D.A., Langley, P.A., andCoates, T.W. 1981. Sex pheromones inGlossina pallidipes. Proc. 17th ISCTRC Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1981. Organization of African Unity, Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 431–440, 1983.Google Scholar
  5. Carlson, D.A., Nelson, D.R., Langley, P.A., Coates, T.W., Davis, T.L., andLeegwater-Vanderlinden, M. 1984. Contact sex pheromone in the Tsetse FlyGlossinapallidipes (Austen: Identification and synthesis.J. Chem. Ecol. 10:429–450.Google Scholar
  6. Carlson, D.A., Roan, C.S., Yost, R.A., andHector, J. 1989. Dimethyl Disulfide Derivatives of Long Chain Alkenes, Alkadienes and Alkatrienes for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.Anal. Chem. 61:1564–1571.Google Scholar
  7. Coates, T.W., andLangley, P.A. 1982. The causes of mating abstention in male tsetse fliesGlossina morsitans.Physiol. Entomol. 7:235–242.Google Scholar
  8. Dunkelblum, E., Tan, S.H., andSilk, P.J. 1985. Double-bond location in monounsaturated fatty acids by dimethyl disulfide derivatization and mass spectrometry: Application to analysis of fatty acids in pheromone glands of four Lepidoptera.J. Chem. Ecol. 11:265–278.Google Scholar
  9. Fukui, M., andTakahashi, S. 1983. Studies on the mating behavior of the cockroachNaophoeta cinerea Oliver (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae)Mem. Coll. Agric. Kyoto Univ. 122:25.Google Scholar
  10. Huyton, P.M., Langley, P.A., Carlson, D.A., andSchwarz, M. 1980. Specificity of contact sex pheromones in tsetse flies,Glossina spp.Physiol. Entomol. 5:253–264.Google Scholar
  11. Jacobson, M., Adler, V.E., andBaumhover, A.H. 1984. A male tobacco budworm pheromone inhibitory to courtship.J. Environ. Sci. Health. A19:469–476.Google Scholar
  12. Jallon, J.M., Anthony, C. andBenamar, O. 1981. Un antiaphrodisiaque produit par les mâles deDrosophila melanogaster et transféré aux femelles lors de la copulation.C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 292:1147–1149.Google Scholar
  13. Langley, P.A., Huyton, P.M., andCarlson, D.A. 1987. Sex pheromone perception by males of the tsetse fly,Glossina morsitans morsitans.J. Insect. Physiol. 33:981–986.Google Scholar
  14. Merck Index. 1976. M. Windholz, ed. 9th edition. Merck and Co., Rahway, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  15. Muhammed, S., Butler, J.F., andCarlson, D.A. 1975. Stable fly sex attractant found in female body hydrocarbons.J. Chem. Ecol. 1:387–398.Google Scholar
  16. Nelson, D.R., andCarlson, D.A. 1986. Cuticular hydrocarbons of the tsetse fliesGlossina morsitans, G. austeni andG. pallidipes.Insect Biochem. 16:403–416.Google Scholar
  17. Nelson, D.R., Carlson, D.A., andFatland, C.L. 1988. Cuticular hydrocarbons of the tsetse flies, II:G. p. palpalis, G. p. gambiensis, G. fiiscipes, G. tachinoides andG. brevipalpis.J. Chem. Ecol. 14:963–987.Google Scholar
  18. Offor, I.I., Carlson, D.A., Gadzama, N.M., andBozimo, H.T. 1981. Sex recognition pheromone in the West African tsetse fly,Glossina palpalis palpalis (Robineau-Desvoidy).Insect Sci. Appl. 1:417–20.Google Scholar
  19. Schlein, Y., Galun, R., andBen-Eliahu, M.N. 1981a. Abstinons-male produced deterrents of mating in flies.J. Chem. Ecol. 7:285–290.Google Scholar
  20. Schlein, Y., Galun, R., andBen-Eliahu, M.N. 1981b. Receptors of sex pheromones and abstinons inMusca domestica andGlossina morsitans.J. Chem. Ecol. 7:291–303.Google Scholar
  21. Scott, D., Richmond, R.C., andCarlson, D.A. 1988. Mutual pheromone exchange duringmating decreases the sexual attractiveness ofDrosophila males and females.Anim. Behav. 36:1164–1173.Google Scholar
  22. Sonnet, P.E. 1979. Synthesis of the male stable fly polyene (Z, Z)-1,7,13-pentacosatriene and its geometrical isomer.J. Chem. Ecol. 5:415–422.Google Scholar
  23. Sonnet, P.E., Uebel, E.C., andMiller, R.W. 1977. An unusual polyene from male stable flies.J. Chem. Ecol. 3:251–255.Google Scholar
  24. Warthen, J.D., Jr., andUebel, E.C. 1980. Comparison of the unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons of male and female house crickets,Acheta domesticus (L.) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).Insect Biochem. 10:435–439.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. A. Carlson
    • 1
  • Y. Schlein
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA, ARS, MA VERLGainesville
  2. 2.Department of Parasitology, Hadassah Medical SchoolThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations