Advertisement

Zoomorphologie

, Volume 89, Issue 3, pp 207–228 | Cite as

The reproductive system of Gastrotrichs

II. Insemination inMacrodasys: A unique mode of sperm transfer in Metazoa
  • Edward E. Ruppert
Article

Summary

A structural, ultrastructural and functional analysis is made of genital organs ofMacrodasys, a member of the hermaphroditic marine Gastrotricha. The gonads are paired, hermaphroditic and polarized into male and female regions. Male and female gametes are produced simultaneously. Fertilization is internal. Accessory organs consist of, from anterior to posterior, simple male pores, a seminal receptacle and spermatheca, and, a complex caudal organ. Copulation results in reciprocal cross insemination. Sperm transfer, however, is indirect. Autosperms are transferred externally from the male pores to the caudal organ while the animals are in copula. The caudal organ then functions as a penis conducting the autosperms into the partner's seminal receptacle. This unique mode of sperm transfer is discussed with reference to the lower Bilateria and the Metazoa.

Keywords

Functional Analysis Developmental Biology Reproductive System Reciprocal Cross Female Gamete 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ans

anus

ant

“antrum”, “antrum feminimum”, uptake portion of caudal organ

ccl

“cap” cells

cim

circular muscles

eev

egg envelope

egl

epidermal glands

epd

epidermal cells

gmo

glandulomuscular portion of caudal organ

int

intestine, gut

lgm

longitudinal muscles

mpr

male pores

npl

neuropile

nrv

nerve cells

ooc

oocytes, eggs

phg

pharyngeal gland cells

phx

pharynx

ppr

pharyngeal pores

rsp

residual sperm

sdp

secretory “droplet”

sgb

“Stempelgruben”, piston-pits, probable chemosensory organ

spd

spermatids

spm

sperm

spt

spermatheca

srp

seminal receptacle, bursa

tub

copulatory tube of glandulomuscular organ

vdf

vasa deferentia

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Boaden, P.J.S.: Behavior and distribution of the archiannelidTrilobodrilus heideri. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K.43, 239–250 (1963)Google Scholar
  2. Gagne, G.D.:Dolichodasys elongatus n.g. n.sp., a new macrodasyid gastrotrich from New England. Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc.96 (1), 19–27 (1977)Google Scholar
  3. Hummon, W.D.: Gastrotricha. In: Reproduction of marine invertebrates, Vol. I. Acoelomate and pseudocoelomate metazoans (A.C. Giese, J.S. Pearse, eds.), pp. 485–504. New York-London: Academic Press 1974Google Scholar
  4. JÄgersten, G.: Studies on the morphology, larval development and biology ofProtodrilus. Zool. Bidrag. Uppsala29, 427–511 (1952)Google Scholar
  5. Joll, L.M.: Mating, egg laying and hatching ofOctopus tetricus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the laboratory. Mar. Biol.36 (4), 327–333 (1976)Google Scholar
  6. Nixon, D.E.: Dynamics of spatial pattern for the gastrotrichTetranchyroderma bunti in the surface sand of high energy beaches. Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol.61 (2), 211–248 (1976)Google Scholar
  7. Remane, A.: Gastrotricha. Bronn's Kl. Ordn. Tierreichs4/II/1/2, 1–242 (1936)Google Scholar
  8. Riedl, R.J.: Gnathostomulida from America, first record of the new phylum from N. America shores. Sci.163, 445–452 (1969)Google Scholar
  9. Rieger, R.M., Ruppert, E.E., Rieger, G.A., Schoepfer-Sterrer, C.: On the fine structure of gastrotrichs with description ofChordodasys antennatus sp. n. Zool. Scripta.3, 219–237 (1974)Google Scholar
  10. Ruppert, E.E.: The reproductive system of gastrotrichs. III. Genital organs ofThaumastodermatinae nov. subfam. andDiplodasyinae nov. subfam. with discussion of reproduction in the family. Zool. Scripta 7 (in press, 1978)Google Scholar
  11. Ruppert, E.E., Shaw, K.: The reproductive system of gastrotrichs. I. Introduction with morphological data for two newDolichodasys species. Zool. Scripta.6, 185–195 (1977)Google Scholar
  12. Schaller, F.: Mating behavior of lower terrestrial arthropods from the phylogenetic point of view. Proc. 12th Intern. Congr. Entomol. Lond., 1964, pp. 297–298 (1965)Google Scholar
  13. Schoepfer-Sterrer, C.: Five new species ofUrodasys and remarks on the terminology of the genital organs in Macrodasyidae (Gastrotricha). Cah. Biol. Mar.15, 229–254 (1974)Google Scholar
  14. Schroeder, P.C., Hermans, C.O.: Annelida: Polychaeta. In: Reproduction of marine invertebrates, Vol. III. Annelids and echiurans (A.C. Giese, J.S. Pearse, eds.), pp. 1–213. New York-London: Academic Press 1975Google Scholar
  15. Teuchert, G.: Zur Fortpflanzung und Entwicklung der Macrodasyoidea (Gastrotricha). Z. Morphol. ökol. Tiere63, 343–418 (1968)Google Scholar
  16. Teuchert, G.: Aufbau und Feinstruktur der Muskelsysteme vonTurbanella cornuta Remane (Gastrotricha, Macrodasyoidea). Mikrofauna Meeresboden39, 1–26 (1974)Google Scholar
  17. Teuchert, G.: Differenzierung von Spermien bei dem marinen GastrotrichTurbanella cornuta Remane (Ordnung Macrodasyoidea). Verh. Anat. Ges.69, 743–748 (1975)Google Scholar
  18. Teuchert, G.: Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchung über die Spermatogenese und Spermatohistogenese vonTurbanella cornuta Remane (Gastrotricha). J. Ultrastr. Res.56, 1–14 (1976)Google Scholar
  19. Thompson, T.E.: Biology of opisthobranch molluscs, Vol. I, pp. 207. London: The Ray Society 1976Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward E. Ruppert
    • 1
  1. 1.The Smithsonian InstitutionFort Pierce BureauFort PierceUSA

Personalised recommendations