Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 115–138 | Cite as

Is there any future in achievement motivation?

  • Torgrim Gjesme
Article

Abstract

The cognitive elaboration of achievement motivation theory by Raynor is reviewed, and the implications of future orientation and psychological distance are examined. It is suggested that psychological distance is determined by at least the following factors: (a) the expectancy of reaching the goal (attainability of the goal), (b) the distance in time between the present state and the future goal, and (c) the individual's future time orientation considered as a personality trait. It is argued that only the first of these factors is included in Raynor's elaboration. The latter two are assumed to determine the Perceived Goal Distance in Time (PgD), and it is postulated that the arousal of motives increases as PgD decreases. It is concluded that each future goal must be weighted by the corresponding perceived goal distance coefficient.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkinson, J. W. Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior.Psychological Review 1967,64 359–372.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, J. W. (Ed.).Motives in fantasy, action, and society. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1958.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, J. W., & Raynor, J. O. (Eds.).Motivation and achievement. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974.Google Scholar
  4. Braley, L. S., & Freed, N. Modes of temporal orientation and psychopathology.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1971,36 33–39.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, J. S. Gradients of approach and avoidance responses and their relation to level of motivation.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 1948,41 450–465.Google Scholar
  6. Bugelski, R., & Miller, N. E. A spatial gradient in the strength of avoidance responses.Journal of Experimental Psychology 1938,23 494–505.Google Scholar
  7. Cottle, T. J. The circles test: An investigation of perception of temporal relatedness and dominance.Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment 1967,31 58–71.Google Scholar
  8. Cottle, T. J. The location of experience: A manifest time orientation.Acta Psychologica 1968,28 129–149.Google Scholar
  9. Devolder, M.Time orientation: A review. Unpublished report, University of Louvain, 1978.Google Scholar
  10. Dollard, J., & Miller, N. E.Personality and psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950.Google Scholar
  11. Edwards, W. The theory of decision making.Psychological Bulletin 1954,51 380–417.Google Scholar
  12. Entin, E. E., & Raynor, J. O. Effects of contingent future orientation and achievement motivation on performance in two kinds of tasks.Journal of Experimental Research in Personality 1973,6 314–320.Google Scholar
  13. Eson, M. E.An analysis of time perspective at five age levels. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago, 1951.Google Scholar
  14. Fraisse, P.The psychology of time. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.Google Scholar
  15. Gjesme, T.Achievement motives, perceived importance, and school performance. Unpublished report, University of Oslo, 1972.Google Scholar
  16. Gjesme, T. Goal distance in time and its effects on the relations between achievement motives and performance.Journal of Research in Personality 1974,8 161–171.Google Scholar
  17. Gjesme, T. Slope of gradients for performance as a function of achievement motive, goal distance in time and future time orientation.Journal of Psychology 1975,91 143–160.Google Scholar
  18. Gjesme, T. Future-time gradients for performance in test anxious individuals.Perceptual and Motor Skills 1976,42 235–242.Google Scholar
  19. Gjesme, T. Future time orientation as a function of achievement motives, ability, delay of gratification, and sex.Journal of Psychology 1979,101 173–188. (a)Google Scholar
  20. Gjesme, T.Relationships between perceived instrumentality of school performance and future time orientation. Unpublished paper, Ruhr University, 1979. (b)Google Scholar
  21. Gjesme, T.On the concept of future time orientation. Considerations of some influencing factors and measurement's implications. Manuscript submitted for publication, 1979. (c)Google Scholar
  22. Gjesme, T., & Nygård, R.Achievement-related motives: Theoretical considerations and construction of a measuring instrument. Unpublished report, University of Oslo, 1970.Google Scholar
  23. Goldrich, J. M. A study in time orientation: The relation between memory for past experience and orientation to the future.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1967,6 216–221.Google Scholar
  24. Heckhausen, H.The anatomy of achievement motivation. New York: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  25. Heckhausen, H. Intervening cognitions in motivation. In D. E. Berlyne & K. B. Madsen (Eds.),Pleasure, reward, preference. New York: Academic Press, 1973. Pp. 217–240.Google Scholar
  26. Heckhausen, H. Achievement motivation and its constructs: A cognitive model.Motivation and Emotion 1977,1 283–329.Google Scholar
  27. Heckhausen, H.Motivation und Handeln. Heidelberg: Springer, 1980.Google Scholar
  28. House, W. C. Performance expectancies and affect associated with outcomes as a function of time perspective.Journal of Research in Personality 1973,7 277–288.Google Scholar
  29. Isaacson, R. L., & Raynor, J. O.Achievement-related motivation and perceived instrumentality of grades to future career success. Unpublished paper, University of Michigan, 1966.Google Scholar
  30. Kuhl, J. Standard setting and risk preference: An elaboration of the theory of achievement motivation and an empirical test.Psychological Review 1978,85 239–248.Google Scholar
  31. Lewin, K.The conceptual representation and the measurement of psychological forces. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1938.Google Scholar
  32. McClelland, D.C. Notes for a revised theory of motivation. In D. C. McClelland (Ed.),Studies in motivation. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955.Google Scholar
  33. McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., & Lowell, E. L.The achievement motive. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1953.Google Scholar
  34. Miller, N. E. Experimental studies of conflict. In J. McV. Hunt (Ed.),Personality and the behavior disorders. New York: Ronald, 1944, Pp. 431–465.Google Scholar
  35. Miller, N. E. Comments on theoretical models illustrated by the development of theory of conflict behavior.Journal of Personality 1951,20 82–100.Google Scholar
  36. Miller, N. E. Liberalization of basic s-r concepts: Extensions to conflict behavior, motivation, and social learning. In S. Koch (Ed.),Psychology: A study of science. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959. Pp. 196–292.Google Scholar
  37. Miller, N. E., & Murray, E. J. Displacement and conflict: Learnable drive as a basis for a steeper gradient of avoidance than of approach.Journal of Experimental Psychology 1952,43 227–231.Google Scholar
  38. Mischel, W., Grusec, J., & Masters, J. C. Effects of expected delay time on the subjective value of rewards and punishments.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1969,11 363–373.Google Scholar
  39. Nuttin, J.Tache, reusite et echec. Theorie de la conduite humaine. Louvain: Publications Universitaires de Louvain, 1953.Google Scholar
  40. Nuttin, J. The future time perspective in human motivation and learning. InProceedings of the 17th International Congress of Psychology. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1964.Google Scholar
  41. Nuttin, J.Human motivation and time perspective. Part II. The motivational introduction method (M.I.M) and the motivational inventory. Unpublished manuscript, University of Leuven, 1976.Google Scholar
  42. Nygård, R. A reconsideration of the achievement-motivation theory.European Journal of Social Psychology 1975,5 61–92.Google Scholar
  43. Nygård, R., & Gjesme, T. Assessment of achievement motives: Comments and suggestions.Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 1973,17 39–46.Google Scholar
  44. Piaget, J. Time perception in children. In J. T. Fraser (Ed.),The voices of time. New York: Braziller, 1966. Pp. 202–216.Google Scholar
  45. Raynor, J. O.The functional significance of future goals. Paper presented at the meetings of the American Psychological Association as part of a symposium entitled: A Theory of Achievement Motivation: Problems and New Developments, Washington D.C., September 1967.Google Scholar
  46. Raynor, J. O. Future orientation and motivation of immediate activity: An elaboration of the theory of achievement motivation.Psychological Review 1969,76 606–610.Google Scholar
  47. Raynor, J. C. Relationships between achievement-related motives, future orientation, and academic performance.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1970,15 28–33.Google Scholar
  48. Raynor, J. O. Future orientation in the study of achievement motivation. In J. W. Atkinson & J. O. Raynor (Eds.),Motivation and achievement. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974. Pp. 121–154.Google Scholar
  49. Raynor, J. O., Atkinson, J. W., & Brown, M. Subjective aspects of achievement motivation immediately before an examination. In J. O. Raynor & J. W. Atkinson (Eds.),Motivation and achievement. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974, Pp. 155–171.Google Scholar
  50. Raynor, J. O., & Rubin, I. S. Effects of achievement motivation and future orientation on level of performance.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1971,17 36–41.Google Scholar
  51. Raynor, J. O., & Sorrentino, R. M.Effects of achievement motivation and task difficulty on immediate performance in contingent paths. Unpublished paper, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1972.Google Scholar
  52. Revelle, W., & Michaels, E. J. The theory of achievement motivation revisited: The implications of inertial tendencies.Psychological Review 1976,83 394–404.Google Scholar
  53. Ruiz, R. A., Reivich, R. S., & Krauss, H. H. Tests of temporal perspective: Do they measure the same construct?Psychological Reports 1967,21 849–852.Google Scholar
  54. Zurcher, L. A., Jr., Willis, J. E., Ikard, F. F., & Dohme, J. A. Dogmatism, future orientation, and perception of time.Journal of Social Psychology 1967,73 205–209.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Torgrim Gjesme
    • 1
  1. 1.Ruhr UniversityBochum

Personalised recommendations