Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 115–138 | Cite as

Is there any future in achievement motivation?

  • Torgrim Gjesme


The cognitive elaboration of achievement motivation theory by Raynor is reviewed, and the implications of future orientation and psychological distance are examined. It is suggested that psychological distance is determined by at least the following factors: (a) the expectancy of reaching the goal (attainability of the goal), (b) the distance in time between the present state and the future goal, and (c) the individual's future time orientation considered as a personality trait. It is argued that only the first of these factors is included in Raynor's elaboration. The latter two are assumed to determine the Perceived Goal Distance in Time (PgD), and it is postulated that the arousal of motives increases as PgD decreases. It is concluded that each future goal must be weighted by the corresponding perceived goal distance coefficient.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Torgrim Gjesme
    • 1
  1. 1.Ruhr UniversityBochum

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