Zoomorphologie

, Volume 90, Issue 1, pp 1–17 | Cite as

Fine Structure of the ocelli of a synaptid holothurian,Opheodesoma spectabilis, and the effects of light and darkness

  • Masamichi Yamamoto
  • M. Yoshida
Article

Summary

The ocellus of a synaptid holothurian,Opheodesoma spectabilis, is composed of sensory and supportive cells and underlain by numerous bundles of tentacular nerve fibers. Pigment cells in the tentacular nerve envelope the ocellus. A sensory cell is divided into three parts: an apical part from which a single cilicum and numerous microvilli arise, a slender middle part, and an enlarged basal part that contains an oval nucleus and gives rise to an axon. The axonemes in the cilia show varying degrees of remodelling. The following changes result from exposure to light: the microvilli become shorter and irregularly arranged; plasmalemmal invaginations engulf the microvilli; coated vesicles of varying appearances and membranous fragments become abundant; microtubules are less evident in the apical part; and small flat vesicles appear along the plasma membrane in the middle part. The evolution of photosensory cells and membrane turnover are discussed.

Keywords

Developmental Biology Fine Structure Nerve Fiber Middle Part Basal Part 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bedini, C., Ferrero, E., Lanfranchi, A.: Fine structural changes induced by circadian light-dark cycles in photoreceptors of dalyelliidae (Turbellaria: Rhabdocoela). J. Ultrastruct. Res.58, 66–77 (1977)Google Scholar
  2. Behrens, M., Krebs, W.: The effect of light-dark adaptation on the ultrastructure ofLimulus lateral eye retinular cells. J. Comp. Physiol.107, 77–96 (1976)Google Scholar
  3. Berill, M.: The ethology of the synaptid holothurian,Opheodesoma spectabilis. Canad. J. Zool.44, 457–482 (1966)Google Scholar
  4. Brandenburger, J.L., Eakin, R.M., Reed, C.T.: Effects of light- and dark-adaptation on the photic microvilli and photic vesicles of the pulmonate snail,Helix aspersa. Vision Res.16, 1205–1210 (1976)Google Scholar
  5. Doyle, W.L.: Vesiculated axons in haemal vessels of an holothurian,Cucumaria frondosa. Biol. Bull.132, 329–336 (1967)Google Scholar
  6. Eakin, R.M.: Lines of evolution of photoreceptors. In: General physiology of cell specialization (D. Mazia, A. Tyler, eds.), pp. 393–425. New York-San Francisco-Toronto-London: MacGraw-Hill 1963Google Scholar
  7. Eakin, R.M.: Structure of invertebrate photoreceptors. In: Photochemistry of vision. Handbook of sensory physiology, Vol. VII/1 (H.J.A. Dartnall, ed.), pp. 625–684. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1972Google Scholar
  8. Eakin, R.M., Brandenburger, J.L.: Retinal differences between light-tolerant and light-avoiding slugs (Mollusca: Pulmonata). J. Ultrastruct. Res.53, 382–394 (1975)Google Scholar
  9. Eakin, R.M., Westfall, J.A.: Fine structure of photoreceptors inAmphioxus. J. Ultrastruct. Res.6, 531–539 (1962a)Google Scholar
  10. Eakin, R.M., Westfall, J.A.: Fine structure of photoreceptors in the hydromedusan,Polyorchis penicillatus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)48, 826–833 (1962b)Google Scholar
  11. Eguchi, E., Waterman, T.H.: Freeze-etch and histochemical evidence for cycling in crayfish photoreceptor membranes. Cell Tiss. Res.169, 419–434 (1976)Google Scholar
  12. Emerson, C.J.: Larval development of the sea star,Leptasterias polaris, with particular reference to the optic cushion and ocelli. In: Scanning electron microscopy, Vol. II, Proceedings of the workshop on other biological applications of the SEM/TEM IIT Research Institute, Chicago (1977)Google Scholar
  13. Ermak, T.H., Eakin, R.H.: Fine structure of the cerebral and pygidial ocelli inChone ecaudata (Polychaeta: Sabellidae). J. Ultrastruct. Res.54, 243–260 (1976)Google Scholar
  14. Friend, D.S., Farquhar, M.G.: Functions of coated vesicles during protein absorption in the rat vas deferens. J. Cell Biol.35, 357–376 (1967)Google Scholar
  15. Gorman, A.L.F., McReynolds, J.S., Barnes, S.N.: Photoreceptors in primitive chordates: Fine structure, hyperpolarizing receptor potentials and evolution. Science172, 1052–1055 (1971)Google Scholar
  16. Hermans, C., Eakin, R.M.: Fine structure of the cerebral ocelli of a sipunculid,Phascolosoma agassizii. Z. Zeilforsch.100, 325–339 (1969)Google Scholar
  17. Itaya, S.K.: Rhabdom changes in the shrimp,Palaemonetes. Cell Tiss. Res.166, 265–273 (1976)Google Scholar
  18. Kanaseki, T., Kadota, K.: The “vesicle in a basket”. A morphological study of the coated vesicle isolated from the nerve endings of the guinea pig brain, with special reference to the mechanism of membrane movements. J. Cell Biol.42, 202–220 (1969)Google Scholar
  19. Pentreath, V.W., Cobb, J.L.S.: Neurobiology of echinodermata. Biol. Rev.47, 363–392 (1972)Google Scholar
  20. Singla, C.L.: Ocelli of hydromedusae. Cell Tiss. Res.149, 413–429 (1974)Google Scholar
  21. Vaupel von Harnack, M.: über den Feinbau des Nervensystems des Seesterns (Asterias rubens L.). III. Mitteilung die Struktur der Augenpolster. Z. Zellforsch.60, 432–451 (1963)Google Scholar
  22. Weber, W., Grossmann, M.: Ultrastructure of the basiepithelial nerve plexus of the sea urchin,Centrostephanus longispinus. Cell Tiss. Res.175, 551–562 (1977)Google Scholar
  23. White, R.H., Lord, E.: Diminution and enlargement of the mosquito rhabdom in light and darkness. J. Gen. Physiol.65, 583–598 (1975)Google Scholar
  24. Whittle, A.C., Golding, D.W.: The fine structure of prostomial photoreceptors inEulalia viridis (Polychaeta; Annelida). Cell Tiss. Res.154, 379–398 (1974)Google Scholar
  25. Yoshida, M.: Photosensitivity. In: Physiology of echinodermata (R.A. Boolootian, ed.), pp. 435–464. New York-London-Sydney: Interscience 1966Google Scholar
  26. Yoshida, M.: Extraocular photoreception. In: Invertebrates — photoreceptor organs. Handbook of sensory physiology, Vol. VII/6A (H. Autrum, ed.). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer (in press)Google Scholar
  27. Yoshida, M., Ohtsuki, H.: Compound ocellus of a starfish: its function. Science153, 197–198 (1966)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masamichi Yamamoto
    • 1
  • M. Yoshida
    • 1
  1. 1.Tamano Marine LaboratoryOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan

Personalised recommendations