Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 303–308 | Cite as

The universality of a contempt expression: A replication

  • Paul Ekman
  • Karl G. Heider


Two experiments replicated Ekman and Friesen's finding of an expression that signals contempt across cultures. The subjects, from West Sumatra, Indonesia, were members of a culture that differs in a number of ways from Western cultures. In one experiment the subjects judged photographs of Japanese and American faces, both males and females, which showed many different emotions. There was very high agreement about which expressions signaled contempt in preference to anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, fear, or surprise. In a second experiment the Indonesian subjects judged expressions shown by members of their own culture, and again there was very high agreement about which expression signals contempt.


Social Psychology Expression Signal Western Culture High Agreement Contempt Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Ekman
    • 2
  • Karl G. Heider
    • 1
  1. 1.University of South CarolinaUSA
  2. 2.Human Interaction LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaSan Francisco

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