Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 363–368

More evidence for the universality of a contempt expression

  • David Matsumoto

DOI: 10.1007/BF00992972

Cite this article as:
Matsumoto, D. Motiv Emot (1992) 16: 363. doi:10.1007/BF00992972


Since its publication in 1986, Ekman and Friesen's (1986) discovery of a universal facial expression unique to contempt has received considerable attention (e.g., see Ekman & Friesen, 1988; Ekman & Heider, 1988; Ekman, O'Sullivan, & Matsumoto, 1991a, 1991b; Izard & Haynes, 1988; Russell, 1991a, 1991b; Ricci Bitti, Brighetti, Garotti, Boggi-Cavallo, 1989). Actually, much of this argument began before there was adequate sampling of contempt photographs across many cultures. In order to address this concern, this study reports judgment data on all 12 photos used in previous studies depicting the contempt expression from four non-American cultures. The data provide a strong replication of Ekman and Friesen's (1986) and Ekman and Heider's (1988) findings for a universal expression of contempt.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Matsumoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologySan Francisco State UniversitySan Francisco

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