Advertisement

Natural Language & Linguistic Theory

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 181–254 | Cite as

The lexical integrity principle: Evidence from Bantu

  • Joan Bresnan
  • Sam A. Mchombo
Article

Abstract

The lexical integrity principle has been called into question by recent work which hypothesizes a syntactic phrasal source for inflected words. Bantu morphology provides a particularly rich empirical domain for this issue because it straddles the boundary between morphology and syntax, inviting syntactic analyses in both the earliest missionary grammars and recent theoretical works in generative grammar (Myers 1987; Baker 1988a,b; Kinyalolo 1991, Carstens 1991). In this study we show that the morphology and syntax of Bantu noun class markers strikingly support the lexical integrity principle, once the morphemic structure of words is factored apart from their prosodic and functional structures.

Keywords

Artificial Intelligence Recent Work Theoretical Work Functional Structure Syntactic Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abney, Steven: 1987,The English Phrase in Its Sentential Aspect, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  2. Ackerman, Farrell: 1987,Miscreant Morphemes: Phrasal Predicates in Ugric, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  3. Ackerman, Farrell and Gert Webelhuth: 1992, ‘Topicalization and German Complex Predicates’, unpublished manuscript, UCSD.Google Scholar
  4. Allan, Keith: 1977, ‘Classifiers’,Language 5, 285–311.Google Scholar
  5. Alsina, Alex: 1993a,Predicate Composition: A Theory of Syntactic Function Alternations, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  6. Alsina, Alex: 1993b, ‘A Theory of Complex Predicates: Evidence from Causatives in Bantu and Romance’, paper presented at the Workshop on Complex Predicates, CSLI, Stanford University, May 21–3, 1993.Google Scholar
  7. Alsina, Alex and Sam A. Mchombo: 1990, ‘The Syntax of Applicatives in Chicheŵa: Problems for a Theta Theoretic Asymmetry’,Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 8, 493–506.Google Scholar
  8. Alsina, Alex and Sam A. Mchombo: 1993, ‘Object Asymmetries in the Chicheŵa Applicative Construction’, in Sam Mchombo (ed.),Theoretical Aspects of Bantu Grammar, CSLI, Stanford University, pp. 17–45.Google Scholar
  9. Anderson, Stephen R.: 1984, ‘Kwakwala Syntax and the Government-Binding Theory’, in Eung-Do Cook and Donna B. Gerdts (eds.),Syntax and Semantics 16:The Syntax of Native American Languages, Academic Press, New York, pp. 21–75.Google Scholar
  10. Andrews, Avery D: 1990, ‘Unification and Morphological Blocking’,Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 8, 507–557.Google Scholar
  11. Baker, Mark: 1988a,Incorporation: A Theory of Grammatical Function Changing, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  12. Baker, Mark: 1988b, ‘Theta Theory and the Syntax of Applicatives in Chicheŵa’,Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 6, 353–89.Google Scholar
  13. Baker, Mark: 1992, ‘Thematic Conditions on Syntactic Structures: Evidence from Locative Applicatives’, in I. M. Roca (ed.),Thematic Structure: Its Role in Grammar, Foris Publications, Dordrecht, pp. 23–46.Google Scholar
  14. Bleek, W. H. I.: 1862,A Comparative Grammar of South African Languages, Trubner and Co., London.Google Scholar
  15. Booij, Geert E.: 1985, ‘Coordination Reduction in Complex Words: A Case for Prosodic Phonology’, in H. van der Hulst and N. Smith (eds.),Advances in Nonlinear Phonology, Foris Publications, Dordrecht, pp. 143–160.Google Scholar
  16. Booij, Geert E. and Jerzy Rubach: 1984, ‘Morphological and Prosodic Domains in Lexical Phonology’,Phonology Yearbook 1, 1–27.Google Scholar
  17. Booij, Geert E. and Jerzy Rubach: 1987, ‘Postcyclic versus Postlexical Rules in Lexical Phonology’,Linguistic Inquiry 18, 1–44.Google Scholar
  18. Botha, Rudolf P.: 1980,Word-based Morphology and Synthetic Compounding, Stellenboosch Papers in Linguistics 5, Department of General Linguistics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa.Google Scholar
  19. Botha, Rudolf P.: 1981, ‘A Base Rule Theory of Afrikaans Synthetic Compounding’, in M. H. Moorgat, H. van der Hulst and T. Hoekstra (eds.),The Scope of Lexical Rules, Foris Publications, Dordrecht, pp. 1–77.Google Scholar
  20. Botha, Rudolf P.: 1984,Morphological Mechanisms: Lexicalist Analysis of Synthetic Compounding, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  21. Bresnan, Joan: 1978, ‘A Realistic Transformational Grammar’, in M. Halle, J. Bresnan and G. A. Miller (eds.),Linguistic Theory and Psychological Reality, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–59.Google Scholar
  22. Bresnan, Joan: 1982, ‘On Control and Complementation’,Linguistic Inquiry 13: 343–434; also in Joan Bresnan (ed.),The Mental Representation of Grammatical Relations, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 282–390.Google Scholar
  23. Bresnan, Joan: 1990, ‘Levels of Representation in Locative Inversion’, invited address presented at the 13th GLOW Colloquium at St. John's College, Cambridge University, on April 6, 1990; revised and duplicated, Department of Linguistics, Stanford University, California; further revised as Bresnan: 1994a.Google Scholar
  24. Bresnan, Joan: 1991, ‘Locative Case vs. Locative Gender’, in Laurel A. Sutton and Christopher Johnson with Ruth Shields (eds.),Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, pp. 53–68.Google Scholar
  25. Bresnan, Joan: 1994a, ‘Locative Inversion and the Architecture of Universal Grammar’,Language 70, to appear.Google Scholar
  26. Bresnan, Joan: 1994b, ‘Category Mismatches’, paper presented to the Plenary Session of the 25th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, Rutgers University, March 26, 1994.Google Scholar
  27. Bresnan, Joan and Jonni M. Kanerva: 1989, ‘Locative Inversion in Chicheŵa: A Case Study of Factorization in Grammar’,Linguistic Inquiry 20, 1–50.Google Scholar
  28. Bresnan, Joan and Jonni M. Kanerva: 1992, ‘The Thematic Hierarchy and Locative Inversion in UG. A Reply to Paul Schachter's Comments’, in Tim Stowell and Eric Wehrli (eds.),Syntax and Semantics 26:Syntax and the Lexicon, Academic Press, New York, pp. 111–125.Google Scholar
  29. Bresnan, Joan and Sam A. Mchombo: 1986, ‘Grammatical and Anaphoric Agreement’, in A. M. Farley, P. T. Farley and K.-E. McCullough (eds.),Papers from the Parasession on Pragmatics and Grammatical Theory, CLS22, Chicago, pp. 278–297.Google Scholar
  30. Bresnan, Joan and Sam A. Mchombo: 1987, ‘Topic, Pronoun, and Agreement in Chicheŵa’,Language 63, 741–782.Google Scholar
  31. Bresnan, Joan and Lioba Moshi: 1990, ‘Object Asymmetries in Comparative Bantu Syntax’,Linguistic Inquiry 21, 147–185.Google Scholar
  32. Butt, Miriam: forthcoming, ‘Complex Predicate Scrambling’ in Miriam Butt, Tracy Holloway King and Gillian Ramchand (eds.),Word Order in South Asian Languages, CSLI, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  33. Carstens, Vicki May: 1991,The Morphology and Syntax of Determiner Phrases in Kiswahili, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  34. Cho, Young-mee Yu and Peter Sells: forthcoming, ‘A Lexical Account of Inflectional Suffixes in Korean’,Journal of East Asian Linguistics.Google Scholar
  35. Chomsky, Noam: 1986,Barriers, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  36. Cole, Desmond T.: 1955,Introduction to Tswana Grammar, Longmans, Green, London and Capetown.Google Scholar
  37. Clark, Eve V. and Herbert H. Clark: 1979, ‘When Nouns Surface as Verbs’,Language 55, 767–811.Google Scholar
  38. Corbett, Greville G. and Alfred D. Mtenje: 1987, ‘Gender Agreement in Chicheŵa’,Studies in African Linguistics 18, 1–38.Google Scholar
  39. Dalgish, Gerard M.: 1976a, ‘Locative NPs, Locative Suffixes and Grammatical Relations’, in H. Thompson, K. Whistler, V. Edge, J. J. Jaeger, R. Javkin, M. Petruck, C. Smeall and R. D. Van Valin Jr. (eds.),Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, pp. 139–148.Google Scholar
  40. Dalgish, Gerard M.: 1976b, ‘Passivizing Locatives in OluTsootso’,Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 6, 57–68.Google Scholar
  41. Dalgish, Gerard M. and Gloria Sheintuch: 1976, ‘On the Justification for Language-Specific Sub-Grammatical Relations’,Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 6, 89–107.Google Scholar
  42. Demuth, Katherine and Mark Johnson: 1989, ‘Interaction Between Discourse Functions and Agreement in Setawana’,Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 11, 21–35.Google Scholar
  43. Demuth, Katherine and Sheila Mmusi: 1992, ‘Syntactic, Morphological, and Thematic Characteristics of Setswana Presentational Focus Constructions,’ paper presented at the 23rd Annual Conference on African Linguistics, Michigan State University, East Lansing.Google Scholar
  44. Di Sciullo, Anna-Maria and Edwin Williams: 1987,On the Definition of Word, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  45. Dixon, R. M. W.: 1977, ‘Some Phonological Rules in Yidiny’,Linguistic Inquiry 8, 1–34.Google Scholar
  46. Doke, Clement M.: 1929, ‘The Problem of Word-Division in Bantu, With Special Reference to the Languages of Mashonaland’,Occasional Paper No.2, Department of Native Development, Southern Rhodesia.Google Scholar
  47. Doke, Clement M.: 1935,Bantu Linguistics Terminology, Longmans, Green, London.Google Scholar
  48. Doke, Clement M.: 1954,The Southern Bantu Languages, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  49. Doke, Clement M.: 1988,Textbook of Zulu Grammar, sixth edition, Maskew Miller Longman, Cape Town.Google Scholar
  50. Doke, Clement M. and S. M. Mofokeng: 1985,Textbook of Southern Sotho Grammar, second edition, Maskew Miller Longman, Cape Town.Google Scholar
  51. Fortune, G.: 1955,An Analytical Grammar of Shona, Longmans, London.Google Scholar
  52. Fortune, G.: 1985,Shona Grammatical Constructions: Parts 1 and 2, third edition, Mercury Press, Harare.Google Scholar
  53. Garrett, Andrew: 1990, ‘Applicatives and Preposition Incorporation’, in K. Dziwirek, P. Farrell and E. Mejías-Bikandi (ed.),Grammatical Relations: A Cross-Theoretical Perspective, CSLI, Stanford University, pp. 183–198.Google Scholar
  54. Givón, Talmy: 1972,Studies in ChiBemba and Bantu Grammar, Studies in African Linguistics 3, supplement 3.Google Scholar
  55. Givón, Talmy: 1976, ‘Topic, Pronoun, and Grammatical Agreement’, in Charles N. Li (ed.),Subject and Topic, Academic Press, New York, pp. 149–188.Google Scholar
  56. Greenberg, Joseph H.: 1977, ‘Niger-Congo Noun Class Markers: Prefixes, Suffixes, Both or Neither’,Studies in African Linguistics, Supplement 7, 97–104.Google Scholar
  57. Greenberg, Joseph H.: 1978, ‘How Does a Language Acquire Gender Markers?’ in Joseph H. Greenberg (ed.),Universals of Human Language, vol. 3, Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp. 48–82.Google Scholar
  58. Guthrie, Malcolm: 1948,The Classification of Bantu Languages, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  59. Haider, Hubert and Martin Prinzhorn (eds.): 1986,Verb Second Phenomena in Germanic Languages, Foris Publications, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  60. Heine, Bernd and Ulrike Claudi: 1986,On the Rise of Grammatical Categories. Some Examples from Maa, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  61. Hodges, Kathryn S. and Susan U. Stucky: 1979, ‘On the Inadequacy of a Grammatical Relation Referring Rule in Bantu’,Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 9, 91–99.Google Scholar
  62. Homburger, L.: 1929,Les préfixes nominaux dans les parlers peul, haoussa et bantous, Institut d'ethnologie, Paris.Google Scholar
  63. Inkelas, Sharon: 1989,Prosodic Constituency in the Lexicon, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  64. Inkelas, Sharon and Draga Zec (eds.): 1990,The Phonology-Syntax Connection, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  65. Ishikawa, Akira: 1985,Complex Predicates and Lexical Operations in Japanese, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  66. Kanerva, Jonni M.: 1987, ‘Morphological Integrity and Syntax: The Evidence from Finnish Possessive Suffixes’,Language 63, 498–521.Google Scholar
  67. Kanerva, Jonni M: 1990,Focus and Phrasing in Chicheŵa Phonology, Garland, New York.Google Scholar
  68. King, Tracy: 1992,Configuring Topic and Focus in Russian, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  69. Kinyalolo, Kasangati: 1991,Syntactic Dependencies and the Spec-head Agreement Hypothesis in Kilega, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  70. Kiparsky, Paul: 1982, ‘Lexical Phonology and Morphology’, in S.-S. Yang (ed.),Linguistics in the Morning Calm, Hanshin, Seoul, pp. 3–91.Google Scholar
  71. Koopman, Hilda: 1984,The Syntax of Verbs: from Verb Movement Rules in the Kru Languages to Universal Grammar, Foris Publications, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  72. Kroeger, Paul: 1993,Phrase Structure and Grammatical Relations in Tagalog, CSLI Publications, Stanford.Google Scholar
  73. Kuperus, Julianna and Mpunga wa Ilunga: 1990,Locative Markers in Luba, Annales Sciences Humaines130, Tervuren, Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale.Google Scholar
  74. Lapointe, Steven: 1979, ‘A Lexical Analysis of the English Auxiliary Verb System’,GLOT 2, 215–254.Google Scholar
  75. Lanham, L. W.: 1955,A Study of Gitonga of Inhambane, Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  76. Lehmann, Christian: 1982, ‘Universal and Typological Aspects of Agreement’, in H. Seiler and F. J. Stachowiak,Apprehension, vol. II, Narr, Tübingen, pp. 201–267.Google Scholar
  77. Lehmann, Christian: 1988, ‘On the Function of Agreement’, in Michael Barlow and Charles Ferguson (eds.)Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions, CSLI, Stanford, pp. 55–65.Google Scholar
  78. Liberman, Mark and Richard Sproat: 1992, ‘The Stress and Structure of Modified Noun Phrases in English’, in Ivan A. Sag and Anna Szabolcsi (eds.),Lexical Matters, CSLI, Stanford University, pp. 131–181.Google Scholar
  79. Lieber, Rochelle: 1983, ‘Argument Linking and Compounds in English’,Linguistic Inquiry 14: 251–85.Google Scholar
  80. Lieber, Rochelle: 1988, ‘Phrasal Compounds in English and the Morphology-Syntax Interface’, in D. Brentari, G. Larson and L. MacLeod (eds.),Papers from the Parasession on Agreement in Grammatical Theory, CLS24, Chicago, pp. 202–222.Google Scholar
  81. Lieber, Rochelle: 1992,Deconstructing Morphology: Word Formation In Syntactic Theory, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  82. Manning, Christopher: 1992, ‘Romance is so Complex’,Report No. CSLI-92-168, CSLI, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  83. Matsumoto, Yo: 1992,On the Wordhood of Complex Predicates in Japanese, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  84. Mchombo, Sam A.: 1978,A Critical Appraisal of the Place of Derivational Morphology within Transformational Grammar, Considered with Primary Reference to Chicheŵa and Swahili, Ph.D. dissertation, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.Google Scholar
  85. Meinhof, Carl: 1906,Grundzuge einer vergleichenden Grammatik der Bantusprachen, Berlin.Google Scholar
  86. Mohanan, K. P.: 1982,Lexical Phonology, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  87. Mohanan, K. P.: 1986,The Theory of Lexical Phonology, Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  88. Mohanan, Tara: 1993, ‘Case Alternation on Objects in Hindi’,South Asian Language Review 3, 1–30.Google Scholar
  89. Mohanan, Tara: forthcoming, ‘Wordhood and Lexicality: Noun Incorporation in Hindi’,Natural Language & Linguistic Theory.Google Scholar
  90. Mould, Martin: 1977, ‘On the Productivity of Derivational Morphology and Lexical Representation: Manner Adverbs in Luganda’,Studies in African Linguistics, Supplement 7, 175–183.Google Scholar
  91. Mtenje, Alfred D.: 1988, ‘On Tone and Transfer in Chicheŵa Reduplication’,Linguistics 16, 125–55.Google Scholar
  92. Mufwene, Salikoko: 1980, ‘Bantu Class Prefixes: Inflectional or Derivational?’, in Jody Kreiman and Almerindo E. Ojeda (eds.), CLS16, Chicago, pp. 246–58.Google Scholar
  93. Myers, Scott P.: 1987,Tone and the Structure of Words in Shona, Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  94. Nespor, Marina: 1985, ‘The Phonological Word in Italian’, in H. van der Hulst and N. Smith (eds.),Advances in Nonlinear Phonology, Foris Publications, Dordrecht, pp. 193–204.Google Scholar
  95. Nespor, Marina and Irene Vogel: 1986,Prosodic Phonology, Foris Publications, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  96. Netter, Klaus and Ursula Kärcher, 1986,Documentation of the German Grammar, ESPRIT ACORD project 393, Deliverable Task 1.4., Institut für Maschinelle Sprachverarbeitung, University of Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  97. Netter, Klaus: 1988,Syntactic Aspects of LFG-based Dialogue Parsing, ESPRIT ACORD project 393, Deliverable Task 2.7′(a), Institut für Maschinelle Sprachverarbeitung, University of Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  98. Odden, David: 1992, ‘C-command or Edges in Makonde’,Phonology 7, 163–169.Google Scholar
  99. Orr, Gregory John and Carol Myers Scotton: 1980,Learning Chicheŵa, Books 1 and 2, A Peace Corps Language Course Prepared by the African Studies Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.Google Scholar
  100. Perez (Harford), Carolyn: 1983, ‘Locative Pseudo-Subjects in Shona’,Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 5, 131–155.Google Scholar
  101. Poser, William J.: 1990, ‘Word-internal Phrase Boundary in Japanese’, in Sharon Inkelas and Draga Zec (eds.),The Phonology-Syntax Connection, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 279–287.Google Scholar
  102. Poser, William J.: 1991, ‘Japanese Periphrastic Verbs and Noun Incorporation’, unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  103. Postal, Paul: 1969, ‘Anaphoric Islands’, in Roport I. Binnick, Alice Davison, Georgia M. Green and Jerry L. Morgan (eds.), CLS5, Chicago.Google Scholar
  104. Sadock, Jerry M.: 1980, ‘Noun Incorporation in Greenlandic: A Case of Syntactic Word Formation’,Language 57, 300–319.Google Scholar
  105. Sadock, Jerry M.: 1991,Autolexical Syntax: A Theory of Parallel Grammatical Representation, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  106. Selkirk, Elisabeth O.: 1982,The Syntax of Words, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  107. Selkirk, Elisabeth O.: 1984,Phonology and Syntax: The Relation between Sound and Structure, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  108. Sells, Peter: 1992, ‘Japanese and Korean Morphology from a Lexical Perspective’,Linguistic Inquiry, to appear.Google Scholar
  109. Sells, Peter and Young-mee Yu Cho: 1991, ‘On the Distribution of X0 Elements in Korean’, Proceedings of the Santa Cruz Workshop on Korean Syntax and Semantics, UCSC.Google Scholar
  110. Shibatani, M. and T. Kageyama: 1988, ‘Word Formation in a Modular Theory of Grammar: A Case of Post-Syntactic Compounds in Japanese’,Language 64, 455–84.Google Scholar
  111. Simpson, Jane: 1983,Aspects of Warlpiri Morphology and Syntax, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  112. Simpson, Jane: 1991,Warlpiri Morpho-Syntax: A Lexicalist Approach, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  113. Speas, Margaret: 1991, ‘Functional Heads and Inflectional Morphemes’,The Linguistic Review 8, 389–417.Google Scholar
  114. Spencer, Andrew: 1988, ‘Bracketing Paradoxes and the English Lexicon’,Language 64, 663–82.Google Scholar
  115. Spencer, Andrew: 1991,Morphological Theory, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 413–417.Google Scholar
  116. Sproat, Richard: 1985,On Deriving the Lexicon, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  117. Stowell, Timothy: 1981,Origins of Phrase Structure, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  118. Stucky, Susan U.: 1976, ‘Locatives as Objects in Tshiluba: a Function of Transitivity’,Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 6, 174–202; revised as Stucky: 1978.Google Scholar
  119. Stucky, Susan U.: 1978, ‘Locative Phrases and Alternative Concord in Tshiluba’,Studies in African Linguistics 9, 107–119.Google Scholar
  120. Tabor, Whitney: 1992, ‘Auxiliary Coalescence in Chicheŵa: Mismatch Not Required’, in Jonathan Mead (ed.),Proceedings of the 11th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL), CSLI, Stanford.Google Scholar
  121. Travis, Lisa: 1984,Parameters and Effects of Word Order Variation, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  122. Trithart, Lee: 1977, ‘Locatives’, in E. Byarushengo, A. Duranti and L. Hyman (eds.),Haya Grammatical Structure, Southern California Occasional Papers m Linguistics No.6, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, pp. 89–98.Google Scholar
  123. Ward, Gregory, Richard Sproat and Gail McKoon: 1991, ‘A Pragmatic Analysis of So-called Anaphoric Islands’,Language 67, 439–474.Google Scholar
  124. Welmers, William E.: 1973,African Language Structures, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joan Bresnan
    • 1
  • Sam A. Mchombo
    • 2
  1. 1.CSLI, Ventura HallStanford UniversityStanford
  2. 2.Department of LinguisticsUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeley

Personalised recommendations