Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 277–293 | Cite as

Pain and aggression: Some findings and implications

  • Leonard Berkowitz


Consistent with the cognitive-neoassociationistic conception of anger and emotional aggression, a wide variety of studies with animal as well as human subjects demonstrate that pain often gives rise to an inclination to hurt an available target, and also, at the human level, that people in pain are apt to be angry. However, and also in accord with the present formulation, these “primitive” angry/aggressive reactions can be suppressed, intensified, or modified by cognitive processes.


Social Psychology Human Subject Cognitive Process Present Formulation Human Level 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard Berkowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Wisconsin-Madison

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