Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 165–185 | Cite as

Beyond the intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy: Self-determination in motivation and learning

  • C. Scott Rigby
  • Edward L. Deci
  • Brian C. Patrick
  • Richard M. Ryan


Researchers have typically portrayed intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as dichotomous. Although this dichotomy has explanatory utility, we present a differentiated view of extrinsic motivation, arguing that the relative autonomy of one's motivated actions is more useful for characterizing the motivational basis of learning than is the undifferentiated intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy. Our concept of autonomous extrinsic motivation is based on a developmental analysis of the processes of internalization and integration. In this article we review extensive research indicating that intrinsic motivation and integrated internalization are facilitated by autonomy supportive social contexts, and that these autonomous forms of motivation, in turn, promote high-quality learning.


Social Psychology Social Context Motivate Action Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Scott Rigby
    • 1
  • Edward L. Deci
    • 1
  • Brian C. Patrick
    • 1
  • Richard M. Ryan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of RochesterRochester

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