Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 153, Issue 1–2, pp 119–132 | Cite as

Genome size in gymnosperms

  • D. Ohri
  • T. N. Khoshoo


The DNA 2C and per chromosome values of 57 species belonging to 22 genera of gymnosperms have been analysed. The overall range is 12-fold with a modal value of about 30.0 pg.Cycadales exhibit a 2-fold difference. AmongConiferales with a 4-fold variation, thePinaceae have higher mean DNA contents as well as a greater range and diversity than other families. Remarkable interspecific differences are found inCycas, Picea, Larix, Pinus, Callitris, Cupressus, andChamaecyparis. Despite this, there is a constancy of basikaryotypes within these genera.Gnetum shows a distinctly low DNA value.

Key words

Gymnosperms Nuclear DNA content evolution polyploidy woody habit 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bennett, M. D., 1972: Nuclear DNA contents and minimum generation time in herbaceous plants. — Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B,181, 109–135.Google Scholar
  2. —, 1976: Nuclear DNA amounts in Angiosperms. — Philos. Trans., Ser. B,274, 227–273.Google Scholar
  3. —, —,Heslop-Harrison, J. S., 1982: Nuclear DNA amounts in Angiosperms. — Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B,216, 179.Google Scholar
  4. Cavalier-Smith, T., 1978: Nuclear volume control by nucleoskeletal DNA, selection for cell volume and cell growth rate, and the solution of the DNA C-value paradox. — J. Cell Sci.34, 247–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Darlington, C. D., 1937: Recent Advances in Cytology. 2nd ed. — London: Churchill.Google Scholar
  6. Dhillon, S. S., Berlyn, G. P., Miksche, J. P., 1978: Nuclear DNA in populations ofPinus rigida. — Amer. J. Bot.65, 192–196.Google Scholar
  7. Dhir, N. K., Miksche, J. P., 1974: Intraspecific variation of nuclear DNA content inPinus resinosa. — Can. J. Genet. Cytol.16, 77–83.Google Scholar
  8. Ehrendorfer, F., 1976: Evolutionary significance of chromosomal differentian patterns in Gymnosperms and primitive Angiosperms. — InBeck, C. B., (Ed.): Origin and Early Evolution of Angiosperms, pp. 220–240. — New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  9. El-Lakany, M. H., Sziklai, O., 1971: Intraspecific variation in nuclear characteristics of Douglas-Fir. — Advancing Frontiers Pl. Sci.28, 363–378.Google Scholar
  10. Francini-Corti, E., 1962: Ecology of the haploid generation inPinus. — Advancing Frontiers Pl. Sci.1, 35–49.Google Scholar
  11. Grant, W. F., 1976: The evolution of karyotype and polyploidy in arboreal plants. — Taxon25, 75–84.Google Scholar
  12. Hesemann, C. U., 1980: Cytophotometrical measurement of nuclear DNA content in some coniferous and deciduous trees. — Theor. Appl. Genet.57, 187–191.Google Scholar
  13. Khoshoo, T. N., 1959: Polyploidy in Gymnosperms. — Evolution13, 24–39.Google Scholar
  14. - 1962: Cytogenetical evolution in Gymnosperms—karyotype. — Proc. Summer School, Darjeeling, Govt of India, 119–135.Google Scholar
  15. Levin, D. A., Wilson, A. C., 1976: Rates of evolution in seed plants: Net increase in diversity of chromosome numbers and species numbers through time. — Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.73, 2086–2090.Google Scholar
  16. Mehra, P. N., Khoshoo, T. N., 1956: Cytology of Conifers I. — J. Genet.54, 165–180.Google Scholar
  17. —, —, 1956: Cytology of Conifers II. — J. Genet.54, 181–185.Google Scholar
  18. Miksche, J. P., 1968: Quantitative study of intraspecific variation of DNA per cell inPicea glauca andPinus banksiana. — Can. J. Genet. Cytol.10, 590–600.Google Scholar
  19. —, 1971: Intraspecific variation of DNA per cell betweenPicea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr. provenances. — Chromosoma32, 343–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. —, 1973: DNA base composition and repetitious DNA in several Conifers. — Chromosoma41, 29–36.Google Scholar
  21. Nagl, W., 1978: Endopolyploidy and Polyteny in Differentiation and Evolution. — Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  22. Ohno, S., 1970: Evolution by Gene Duplication. — New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. Ohri, D., Khoshoo, T. N., 1986: Plant DNA — contents and systematics. — InDutta, S. K., (Ed.): DNA Systematics. Vol. II, Plants. — Florida: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  24. - - 1986: Constancy of nuclear DNA amount in 20 provenances ofPinus roxburghii Sarg. — (In preparation).Google Scholar
  25. Pederick, L. A., 1970: Chromosome relationships betweenPinus species. — Silvae Genet.19, 171–180.Google Scholar
  26. Prager, E. M., Fowler, D. P., Wilson, A. C., 1976: Rates of evolution in Conifers (Pinaceae). — Evolution30, 637–649.Google Scholar
  27. Price, H. J., Sparrow, A. H., Nauman, A. F., 1973a: Evolutionary and developmental considerations of the variability of nuclear parameters in higher plants1. Genome volume, interphase chromosome volume and estimated DNA content of 236 Gymnosperms. — Brockhaven Symp. Biol.25, 390–421.Google Scholar
  28. —, —, —, 1973b: Correlations between nuclear volume, cell volume and DNA content in meristematic cells of herbaceaous Angiosperms. — Experientia29, 1028–1029.Google Scholar
  29. Rake, A. V., Miksche, J. P., Hall, R. B., Hansen, K. M., 1980: DNA reassociation kinetics of four Conifers. — Can. J. Genet. Cytol.22, 69–79.Google Scholar
  30. Saylor, L. C., 1964: Karyotype analysis ofPinus GroupLariciones. — Silvae Genet.13, 165–170.Google Scholar
  31. —, 1972: Karyotype analysis of the genusPinus subg.Pinus. — Silvae Genet.21, 155–163.Google Scholar
  32. —, 1983: Karyotype analysis of the genusPinus subg.Strobus. — Silvae Genet.32, 119–124.Google Scholar
  33. Sparrow, A. H., Nauman, A. F., 1976: Evolution of genome size by DNA doubling. — Science192, 524–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Stebbins, G. L., 1950: Variation and Evolution in Plants. — New York: Columbia Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  35. Taylor, T. N., 1976: Introduction: Patterns in Gymnosperm evolution. — Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.21, 1–3.Google Scholar
  36. —, 1982: Introduction: Gymnosperms, Paleozoic and Mesozoic. — Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.37, 1–5.Google Scholar
  37. Teoh, S. B., Rees, H., 1976: Nuclear DNA amounts in populations ofPicea andPinus species. — Heredity36, 123–127.Google Scholar
  38. Van't Hof, J., 1965: Relationships between mitotic cycle duration, S period duration and the average rate of DNA synthesis in root meristem cells of several plants. — Exp. Cell. Res.39, 48–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wilson, B. F., 1964: A model for cell production by the cambium of Conifers. — InZimmermann, M. H., (Ed.): The Formation of Wood in Forest Trees. — London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. —, 1966: Mitotic activity in the cambial zone ofPinus strobus. — Amer. J. Bot.53, 364–372.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Ohri
    • 1
  • T. N. Khoshoo
    • 2
  1. 1.Cytogenetics LaboratoryNational Botanical Research InstituteLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Distinguished Scientist (CSIR) Tata Energy Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations