Advertisement

Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 204, Issue 3–4, pp 179–193 | Cite as

Stamen movements in flowers ofOpuntia (Cactaceae) favour oligolectic pollinators

  • Clemens Schlindwein
  • Dieter Wittmann
Article

Abstract

Opuntia brunneogemmia andO. viridirubra occur sympatrically in the Serra do Sudeste, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Their flowers have 450–600 thigmonastic stamens and provide large amounts of pollen and nectar for bees. Bees of 41 species were registered at the flowers ofO. brunneogemmia and 30 at the flowers ofO. viridirubra. Females of three oligolectic species are the only effective pollinators:Ptilothrix fructifera (Anthophoridae),Lithurgus rufiventris (Megachilidae), andCephalocolletes rugata (Colletidae). During their visits inOpuntia-flowers, bees touch the filaments and stimulate the movement of the stamens to the centre of the flower. At the end of this movement, the anthers are densely packed around the style. As a consequence the pollen is presented in an easily accessible upper layer of anthers and various, nearly inaccessible lower layers. The lower layers contain about 80% of the pollen reward. Only females of the three oligolectic pollinators exploit the pollen from the lower layers and reach the nectar furrow. Therefore, through their stamen movements,Opuntia flowers hide most of their pollen from flower visitors but favour effectively pollinating, oligolectic bees.

Key words

Cactaceae Opuntia Apoidea Pollination stamen movements effective pollinators oligolecty bees 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barthlott, W., Hunt, D. R., 1993Cactaceae. — InKubitzki, K., (Ed.): The families and genera of vascular plants,II. pp. 161–197. — Wien: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Cockerell, F. D. A., 1900: The cactus bees; genusLithurgus. — Amer. Naturalist34: 487–488.Google Scholar
  3. Grant, V., Grant, K. A., 1979a: Pollination ofOpuntia basilaris andO. littoralis. — Pl. Syst. Evol.132: 321–325.Google Scholar
  4. —, —, 1979b: The pollination spectrum in the southwestern American cactus flora. — Pl. Syst. Evol.133: 29–37.Google Scholar
  5. —,Hurd, P. D., Jr., 1979: Pollination of the southwestern Opuntias. — Pl. Syst. Evol.133: 15–28.Google Scholar
  6. —,Hurd, P. D. Jr., 1979: Pollination ofOpuntia lindheimeri and related species. — Pl. Syst. Evol.132: 313–320.Google Scholar
  7. Hunt, D., 1989:Opuntia. — InWalters, S. M., Alexander, J. C. M., (Eds): European garden flora,3, pp. 297–300. — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Leuenberger, B. E., 1976: Die Pollenmorphologie derCactaceae und ihre Bedeutung für die Systematik. — Diss. Bot.31: 1–319.Google Scholar
  9. McFarland, J. D., Kevan, P. G., Lane, M. A., 1989: Pollination biology ofOpuntia imbricata (Cactaceae) in southern Colorado. — Canad. J. Bot.67: 24–28.Google Scholar
  10. Oliveira, A. A., Ribeiro, A. G., 1986: Uso potential da terra. Climatologia. — In: Projeto Radambrasil, Levantamento de recursos naturais,33, pp. 757–776. — Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.Google Scholar
  11. Osborn, M. M., Kevan, P. G., Lane, M. A., 1988: Pollination biology ofOpuntia polyacantha andOpuntia phaeacantha (Cactaceae) in southern Colorado. — Pl. Syst. Evol.159: 85–94.Google Scholar
  12. Porsch, O., 1938: Das Bestäubungsleben der Kakteenblüte, I.Cactaceae. — Jahrb. Deutsch. Kakteen-Ges.1938/1: 1–80.Google Scholar
  13. Rauh, W., 1979: Kakteen an ihren Standorten. — Berlin, Hamburg: Parey.Google Scholar
  14. Ritter, F., 1979: Kakteen in Südamerika.1. — Spangenberg: Selbstverlag.Google Scholar
  15. Schlindwein, C., 1992:Arhysosage sp. (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Andrenidae) an oligolectic pollinator of cactus flowers. — InOveral, W. L., (Ed.): Resumos do XII Congresso Latino-Americano de Zoologia e XIX Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, Belém, p. 61.Google Scholar
  16. —, 1995: Melittophilous plants, their pollen and flower visiting bees in southern Brazil.2.Cactaceae. — Biociências3(2): 35–71.Google Scholar
  17. —, 1995: Specialized solitary bees as effective pollinators of South Brazilian species ofNotocactus andGymnocalycium (Cactaceae). — Bradleya13: 25–34.Google Scholar
  18. Spears, E. E. Jr., 1987: Island and mainland pollination ecology ofCentrosema virginianum andOpuntia stricta. — J. Ecology75: 351–362.Google Scholar
  19. Toumey, J. W., 1899: Sensitive stamens in the genusOpuntia. — Asa Gray Bull.7: 35–37.Google Scholar
  20. Troll, W., 1922: Über Staubblatt- und Griffelbewegungen und ihre teleologische Deutung. — Flora115: 191–250.Google Scholar
  21. Vogel, S., 1983: Ecophysiology of zoophilic pollination. — InLange, O. L., Nobel, P. S., Osmond, C. B., Ziegler, H., (Eds): Physiological plant ecology,III, pp. 559–624. — Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clemens Schlindwein
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dieter Wittmann
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Landwirtschaftliche Zoologie und BienenkundeUniversität BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Instituto de BiociênciasPUC-RSPorto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations