Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 238–252 | Cite as

Felt, false, and miserable smiles

  • Paul Ekman
  • Wallace V. Friesen
Article

Abstract

Theoretically based distinctions linked to measurable differences in appearance are described for three smiles: felt smiles (spontaneous expressions of positive emotion); false smiles (deliberate attempts to appear as if positive emotion is felt when it isn't); and, miserable smiles (acknowledgements of feeling miserable but not intending to do much about it). Preliminary evidence supports some of the hypotheses about how these three kinds of smile differ.

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Reference Notes

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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Ekman
    • 1
  • Wallace V. Friesen
  1. 1.School of Medicine, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of CaliforniaSan Francisco

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