Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 238–252 | Cite as

Felt, false, and miserable smiles

  • Paul Ekman
  • Wallace V. Friesen


Theoretically based distinctions linked to measurable differences in appearance are described for three smiles: felt smiles (spontaneous expressions of positive emotion); false smiles (deliberate attempts to appear as if positive emotion is felt when it isn't); and, miserable smiles (acknowledgements of feeling miserable but not intending to do much about it). Preliminary evidence supports some of the hypotheses about how these three kinds of smile differ.


Social Psychology Positive Emotion Preliminary Evidence Measurable Difference Deliberate Attempt 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Reference Notes

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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Ekman
    • 1
  • Wallace V. Friesen
  1. 1.School of Medicine, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of CaliforniaSan Francisco

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