Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 3–12 | Cite as

Interaction between gaze and legitimacy of request on compliance in a field setting

  • Chris L. Kleinke
Article

Abstract

It was hypothesized that experimenter gaze would lead to increased compliancewith a legitimate request and decreased compliance with an illegitimate request. Subjects (95 males, 73 females) in Experiment 1 gave more dimes for a phone call to gazing rather than non-gazing female experimenters. Experimenter gaze did not influence dimes given by subjects for a candy bar. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 with a different legitimacy manipulation and with an additional treatment including both gaze and touch. A significant interaction showed that subjects (56 males, 58 females) gave more dimes for a legitimate request (phone call) when they received gaze alone or gaze and touch from a female experimenter. Subjects gave more dimes for an illegitimate request (buying gum) when the experimenter did not gaze at or touch them.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference Notes

  1. Ernest, R.C., & Cooper, R.E. “Hey mister, do you have any change?”: Two real-world studies of proxemic effects on compliance with a mundane request. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. Kleinke, C.L.Influence of confederate's gaze and reported feelings on subjects' heart-rates, visual behavior, and affective responses in a “biofeedback” experiment. Unpublished manuscript, Wellesley College, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. Reis, H.T., & Halek, D.On the role of arousal in responses to a staring individual. Unpublished manuscript, University of Rochester, 1977.Google Scholar
  4. Reis, H.T., & Werner, A.Some inter- and intrapersonal consequences of eye contact. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Philadelphia, 1974.Google Scholar

References

  1. Baron, R.A. Invasions of personal space and helping: Mediating effects of invader's apparent need.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1978,14, 304–312.Google Scholar
  2. Castellan, N.J. On the partitioning of contingency tables.Psychological Bulletin, 1965,64, 330–338.Google Scholar
  3. Cunningham, M.R. Weather, mood, and helping behavior: Quasi experiments with the sunshine samaritan.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979,37, 1947–1956.Google Scholar
  4. Ellsworth, P.C., & Carlsmith, J.M. Effects of eye contact and verbal content on affective responses to a dyadic interaction.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1968,10, 15–20.Google Scholar
  5. Ellsworth, P.C., Carlsmith, J.M., & Henson, A. The stare as a stimulus to flight in human subjects: A series of field experiments.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972,21, 302–311.Google Scholar
  6. Ellsworth, P.C., & Langer, E.J. Staring and approach: An interpretation of the stare as a non-specific activator.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1976,33, 117–122.Google Scholar
  7. Hassett, J.A primer of psychophysiology. San Francisco, W.H. Freeman, 1978.Google Scholar
  8. Kahn, A., & McGaughey, T.A. Distance and liking: When moving close produces increased liking.Sociometry, 1977,40, 138–144.Google Scholar
  9. Kleinke, C.L. Compliance to requests made by gazing and touching experimenters in field settings.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1977,13, 218–223.(a)Google Scholar
  10. Kleinke, C.L. Effects of dress on compliance to requests in a field setting.Journal of Social Psychology, 1977,101, 223–224.(b)Google Scholar
  11. Kleinke, C.L., & Singer, D.A. Influence of gaze on compliance with demanding and conciliatory requests in a field setting.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1979,5, 386–390.Google Scholar
  12. Kleinke, C.L., Staneski, R.A., & Berger, D.E. Evaluation of an interviewer as a function of interviewer gaze, reinforcement of subject gaze, and interviewer attractiveness.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975,31, 115–122.Google Scholar
  13. Kleinke, C.L., Staneksi, R.A., & Pipp, S.L. Effects of gaze, distance, and attractiveness on males' first impressions of females.Representative Research in Social Psychology, 1975,6, 7–12.Google Scholar
  14. Konedni, V.J., Libuser, L., Morton, H., & Ebbesen E.B. Effects of a violation of personal space on escape and helping responses.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1975,11, 288–299.Google Scholar
  15. Langer, E.J., & Abelson, R.P. The semantics of asking a favor: How to succeed in getting help without really dying.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972,24, 26–32.Google Scholar
  16. Libby, W.L., & Yaklevich, D. Personality determinants of eye contact and direction of gaze aversion.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973,27, 197–206.Google Scholar
  17. McGuigan, F.J. The experimenter: A neglected stimulus object.Psychological Bulletin, 1963,60, 421–428.Google Scholar
  18. Modigliani, A. Embarrassment, facework, and eye-contact: Testing a theory of embarrassment.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1971,17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  19. Patterson, M.L. An arousal model of interpersonal intimacy.Psychological Review, 1976,83, 235–245.Google Scholar
  20. Scherwitz, L., & Helmreich, R. Interactive effects of eye contact and verbal content on interpersonal attraction in dyads.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973,25 6–14.Google Scholar
  21. Schiffenbauer, A., & Schiavo, R.S. Physical distance and attraction: An intensification effect.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1976,12, 274–282.Google Scholar
  22. Shaffer, J.P. Defining and testing hypotheses in multidimensinal contingency tables.Psychological Bulletin, 1973,79, 127–141.Google Scholar
  23. Snyder, M., Grether, J., & Keller, K. Staring and compliance: A field experiment on hitch-hiking.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1974,4, 165–170.Google Scholar
  24. Storms, M.D., & Thomas, G.C. Reactions to physical closeness.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1977,35, 412–418.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris L. Kleinke
    • 1
  1. 1.Boston College Department of PsychologyChestnut Hill

Personalised recommendations