Lifestyles

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 23–51

The role of economic and demographic factors in explaining time-use of single and married mothers

  • Robin A. Douthitt
  • Cathleen D. Zick
  • Jane McCullough
Article

Abstract

The number of households headed by single mothers has been increasing in recent years. Yet, little is known about how this growing segment of the population differs, if at all, from married mothers in their time allocation patterns. In the study reported here, a system of time allocation equations based on household production theory is estimated for both married and single mothers. The results indicate that married and single mothers make different decisions about how to allocate their time to household production, child care, leisure, and paid work. Specifically, single and married mothers responded differently to a change in their shadow wage rates, unearned income, paid child care, and the ages of the children in each of the estimated equations.

Key words

Family Time Use Mother's Time Allocation Single Parent 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Becker, G. (1965). A theory of the allocation of time.The Economic Journal, 75, 493–517.Google Scholar
  2. Becker, G. (1981).A treatise on the family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bould, S. (1977). Female-headed families: Personal fate control and the provider role.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 39, 339–349.Google Scholar
  4. Brandwein, R., Brown, C., & Fox, E. (1974). Women and children last: The social situation of divorced mothers and their families.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 36, 498–514.Google Scholar
  5. Buehler, C., & Hogan, M. (1980). Managerial behavior and stress in families headed by divorced women: A proposed framework.Family Relations, 29, 525–532.Google Scholar
  6. DeFrain, J., & Eirick, R. (1981). Coping as divorced single parents: A comparative study of fathers and mothers.Family Relations, 30, 265–273.Google Scholar
  7. Dismukes, D., & Abdel-Ghany, M. (1988). Homemakers' household-work time in single-parent and two-parent families.Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics, 12, 247–256.Google Scholar
  8. Duncan, G., & Hoffman, S. (1985). A reconsideration of the economic consequences of marital dissolution.Demography, 22, 485–497.Google Scholar
  9. Eblen, L. (1981). Resource, parenting, and self-development needs of single parents. Unpublished master's thesis, Iowa State University, Ames.Google Scholar
  10. Epstein, M. (1979, Winter). Children living in one-parent families.Family Economics Review, 21–23. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, Consumer and Food Economics Institute, Hyattsville, MD. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  11. Family time use: An eleven-state urban/rural comparison (Bulletin VPI-2) (1981). Blacksburg: Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station.Google Scholar
  12. Gasser, R., & Taylor, C. (1976). Role adjustment of single parent fathers with dependent children.The Family Coordinator, 25, 397–401.Google Scholar
  13. Glasser, P., & Navarre, E. (1965). Structural problems of the one-parent family.Journal of Social Issues, 21, 98–109.Google Scholar
  14. Grief, G. (1985). Children and housework in the single father family.Family Relations, 34, 353–357.Google Scholar
  15. Heckman, J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error.Econometrica, 47, 153–161.Google Scholar
  16. Hungerford, N., & Paolucci, B. (1977). The employed female single parent.Journal of Home Economics, 69(5), 10–13.Google Scholar
  17. Johnson, B. (1980, Summer/Fall). Single-parent families.Family Economics Review (620-220/3637), 22–27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration—Agricultural Research, Beltsville, MD.Google Scholar
  18. Katz, A. (1979). Lone fathers: Perspectives and implications for family policy.Family Coordinator, 28, 521–528.Google Scholar
  19. Kmenta, J. (1986).Elements of Econometrics (2nd ed). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  20. Lino, M. (1989). Financial status of single-parent households.Family Economics Review, 2(1), 2–7. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Family Economics Research Group, Hyattsville, MD. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  21. Lyerly, B. (1969). Time used for work in female headed, single-parent families as compared with two-parent families. Unpublished master's thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  22. McEaddy, B. (1976). Women who head families: A socioeconomic analysis.Monthly Labor Review, 99(6), 3–9.Google Scholar
  23. Mendes, H. (1976). Single fathers.The Family Coordinator, 25, 439–444.Google Scholar
  24. National Center for Health Statistics (1988). Annual summary of births, marriages, divorces, and deaths, United States, 1987.Monthly Vital Statistics Report, vol. 36, No. 13 [DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 88-1120]. Public Health Service, Hyattsville, MD.Google Scholar
  25. Orthner, D., Brown, T., & Ferguson, D. (1976). Single-parent fatherhood: An emerging family life style.The Family Coordinator, 25, 429–437.Google Scholar
  26. Phlips, L. (1974).Applied consumption analysis. Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  27. Rowland, V. (1983). Resource adequacy and time use in one-parent and two-parent families. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.Google Scholar
  28. Rowland, V., Nickols, S., & Dodder, R. (1986). Parents' time allocation: A comparison of households headed by one and two parents.Home Economics Research Journal, 15, 105–114.Google Scholar
  29. Sanik, M., & Mauldin, T. (1986). Single versus two parent families: A comparison of mothers' time.Family Relations, 35, 53–56.Google Scholar
  30. Schorr, A., & Moen, P. (1979). The single parent and public policy.Social Policy, 9(5), 15–21.Google Scholar
  31. Schwartz, F. (1989). Management women and the new facts of life.Harvard Business Review, 67, 65–76.Google Scholar
  32. Smith, M. (1980). The social consequences of single parenthood: A longitudinal perspective.Family Relations, 29, 75–81.Google Scholar
  33. Survey Research Center. (1985).A panel study of income dynamics: Procedures and tape codes, 1985 interviewing year. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  34. Tyrrell, T., & Mount, T. (1982). A nonlinear expenditure system using a linear logit specification.American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 64, 539–546.Google Scholar
  35. U.S. Bureau of the Census (1980).1980 Census. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  36. U.S. Bureau of the Census (1987a).Household, families, marital status, and living arrangements: March 1987 (Advance Report, Current Population Reports P-20, No. 417). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  37. U.S. Bureau of the Census (1987b).Statistical abstract of the United States, 1988: 108th edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  38. Vickery, C. (1978). Economics and single-mother family.Public Welfare, 36(1), 18–21.Google Scholar
  39. Zick, C., & Bryant, W.K. (1983). Alternative strategies for pricing home work time.Home Economics Research Journal, 12, 133–144.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robin A. Douthitt
    • 1
  • Cathleen D. Zick
    • 2
  • Jane McCullough
    • 3
  1. 1.University of WisconsinUSA
  2. 2.University of UtahUSA
  3. 3.Utah State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations