Advertisement

Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 205–227 | Cite as

Socialization of emotion: Pathway to preschoolers' emotional and social competence

  • Susanne A. Denham
  • Leslie Grout
Article

Abstract

Aspects of 47 preschoolers'emotional competence—their patterns of emotional expressiveness and reactions to others' emotion displays—were observed in two settings, with mother and with peers, and their general social competence was rated by their preschool teachers. Intrapersonal and interpersonal (i.e., socialization correlates of children's emotional competence were identified, and a causal model incorporating direct and indirect influences on social competence was evaluated. Maternal patterns of expressiveness, reactions to children's emotion displays, and self-reported affective environment were associated with children's emotional competence in the preschool. Children's emotional competence with mother predicted their emotional competence in the preschool somewhat less strongly, suggesting that emotional competence may differ according to the interpersonal relationship studied. Taken as a whole, findings reassert the importance of the domain of emotional expression to the development of social competence.

Keywords

Social Psychology Interpersonal Relationship Emotional Expression Social Competence Causal Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barrett, K. C., & Campos, J. J. (1987). Perspectives on emotional development II: A functionalist approach to emotions. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.),Handbook of infant development (2nd ed., pp. 555–578). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Barrett, K. C. (1993). The development of nonverbal communication of emotion: A functionalist perspective.Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 17 145–169.Google Scholar
  3. Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority.Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4 (1, Pt. 2).Google Scholar
  4. Baumrind, D. (1968).Manual for the preschool behavior Q-sort. Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  5. Behar, L., & Stringfield, S. (1974). A behavior rating scale for the preschool child.Developmental Psychology, 10 601–610.Google Scholar
  6. Cassidy, J., Parke, R. D., Butkovsky, L., & Braungart, J. M. (1992). Family-peer connections: The roles of emotional expressiveness within the family and children's understanding of emotions.Child Development, 63 603–618.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20 37–46.Google Scholar
  8. Cummings, E. M., & Cummings, J. S. (1988). A process-oriented approach to children's coping with adult's angry behavior.Developmental Review, 8 296–321.Google Scholar
  9. Cummings, E. M., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Radke-Yarrow, M. (1981). Young children's responses to expressions of anger and affection by others in the family.Child Development, 52 1274–1282.Google Scholar
  10. Custrini, R. J., & Feldman, R. S. (1989). Children's social competence and nonverbal encoding and decoding of emotion.Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18 336–342.Google Scholar
  11. Denham, S. A. (1986). Social cognition, prosocial behavior, and emotion in preschoolers: Contextual validation.Child Development, 57 194–201.Google Scholar
  12. Denham, S. A. (1989). Maternal affect and toddlers' social-emotional competence.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59 368–376.Google Scholar
  13. Denham, S. A. (1993). Maternal emotional responsiveness and toddlers' social-emotional competence.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34 715–728.Google Scholar
  14. Denham, S. A., & Grout, L. (1992). Mothers' emotional expressiveness and coping: Relations with preschoolers' social-emotional competence.Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs, 118 75–101.Google Scholar
  15. Denham, S. A., McKinley, M., Couchoud, E. A., & Holt, R. (1990). Emotional and behavioral predictors of peer status in young preschoolers.Child Development, 61 1145–1152.Google Scholar
  16. Dunn, J. (in press).Beyond attachment. Pacific Heights, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  17. Dunn, J., & Munn, P. (1985). Becoming a family member: Family conflict and the development of social understanding in the second year.Child Development, 56 480–492.Google Scholar
  18. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Carlo, G., Troyer, D., Speer, A. L., Karbon, M., & Switzer, G. (1992). The relations of maternal practices and characteristics to children's vicarious emotional responsiveness.Child Development, 63 583–602.Google Scholar
  19. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1982). Felt, false, and miserable smiles.Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 6 238–252Google Scholar
  20. Feldman, R. S., Philippot, P., & Custrini, R. J. (1991). Social competence and nonverbal behavior. In R. S. Feldman & B. Rimé (Eds.),Fundamentals of nonverbal behavior (pp. 329–350). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gottman, J. (1980). Consistency of nonverbal affect and affective reciprocity in marital interaction.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48 711–717.Google Scholar
  22. Halberstadt, A. G. (1986). Family socialization of emotion expression and nonverbal communication styles and skills.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 827–836.Google Scholar
  23. Halberstadt, A. G. (1991a). Maternal expression and emotion: socialization of children's expressiveness. In J. P. Tangney & S. A. Denham (Chairs),Socialization of emotion in the family. Symposium at the biennial meetings of the Society of Research in Child Development, Seattle.Google Scholar
  24. Halberstadt, A. G. (1991b). Towards an ecology of expressiveness: Family expressiveness in particular and a model in general. In R. S. Feldman & B. Rimé (Eds.),Fundamentals of nonverbal behavior (pp. 106–160). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hoffman, M. L. (1982). Development of prosocial motivation: Empathy and guilt. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.),The development of prosocial behavior (pp. 281–314). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  26. Izard, C. E. (1991).The psychology of emotions. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  27. Izard, C. E., Dougherty, F. E., Bloxom, B. M., & Kotsch, W. E. (1974).The Differential Emotions Scale: A method of measuring the subjective experience of discrete emotions. Unpublished manuscript, University of Delaware.Google Scholar
  28. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1981).LISREL V: User's guide. Chicago: National Educational Resources.Google Scholar
  29. Kopp, C. B. (1989). Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view.Developmental Psychology, 25, 343–354.Google Scholar
  30. Malatesta, C. Z., Culver, C., Tesman, J. R., & Shepard, B. (1980). The development of emotional expression during the first two years of life.Society for Research in Child Development Monographs, 54, Serial No 219, Nos. 1–2.Google Scholar
  31. Malatesta, C. Z., & Haviland, J. M. (1982). Learning display rules: The socialization of emotion expression in infancy.Child Development, 53, 991–1003.Google Scholar
  32. Malatesta-Magai, C. (1989). The role of emotions in the development and organization of personality. In Ross Thompson (Ed.),Nebraska symposium: Socioemotional development (pp. 203–224). Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  33. Miller, P. J., & Sperry, L. (1987). The socialization of anger and aggression.Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 33, 1–31.Google Scholar
  34. Patterson, M. L. (1991). A functional approach to nonverbal exchange. In R. S. Feldman & B. Rimé (Eds.),Fundamentals of nonverbal behavior (pp. 458–495). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Radke-Yarrow, M., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Chapman, M. (1983). Children's prosocial dispositions and behavior. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.),Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and development (4th ed., pp. 469–546). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Rubin, K. H., & Clark, M. L. (1983). Preschool teachers' ratings of behavioral problems: Observational, sociometric, and social-cognitive correlates.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 273–286.Google Scholar
  37. Rushton, J. P., Brainerd, C. J., & Pressley, M. (1983). Behavioral development and construct validity: The principle of aggregation.Psychological Bulletin, 94, 18–38.Google Scholar
  38. Saarni, C. (1989). Emotional competence. In Ross Thompson (Ed.),Nebraska symposium: Socioemotional development (pp. 115–161). Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  39. Sackett, G. P. (1979). The lag-sequential analysis of contingency and cyclicity in behavior interaction research. In J. Osofsky (Ed.),Handbook of infant development (pp. 623–649). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  40. Sackett, G. P. (1987). Analysis of sequential social interaction data: Some issues, recent developments, and a causal inference model. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.),Handbook of infant development (2nd ed., pp. 855–878). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Sroufe, L. A., Schork, E., Motti, F., Lawroski, N., & LaFreniere, P. (1984). The role of affect in social competence. In C. E. Izard, J. Kagan, & R. B. Zajonc (Eds.),Emotions, cognition, and behavior (pp. 289–319). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Strayer, J. (1980). A naturalistic study of empathic behaviors and their relations to affective states and perspective-taking skills in preschool children.Child Development, 51, 815–822.Google Scholar
  43. Thompson, R. A. (1989). Emotion and self regulation. In Ross Thompson (Ed.),Nebraska symposium: Socioemotional development (pp. 347–467). Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  44. Tomkins, S. S. (1963).Affect, imagery, and consciousness, Vols. I and II. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  45. Tomkins, S. S. (1991).Affect, imagery, and consciousness, Vol. III. The negative affects: Anger and fear. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  46. Zahn-Waxler, C., Radke-Yarrow, M., & King, R. (1979). Child rearing and children's prosocial initiations toward victims of distress.Child Development, 50, 319–330.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanne A. Denham
  • Leslie Grout

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations