Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Dynamic dependency grammar

  • 92 Accesses

  • 17 Citations

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Abbott, B.: 1976, ‘RNR as a Test for Constituenthood’,Linguistic Inquiry 7, 639–642.

  2. Ades, A. and M. Steedman: 1982, ‘On the Order of Words’,Linguistics and Philosophy 4, 517–558.

  3. Aho, A. V., J. E. Hopcroft, and J. D. Ullman: 1983,Data Structures and Algorithms, Addison-Wesley.

  4. Aho, A. V. and J. D. Ullman: 1972,The Theory of Parsing, Translation and Compiling, Volume 1: Parsing, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey.

  5. Arbib, M. A.: 1969,Theories of Abstract Automata, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey.

  6. Bar-Hillel, Y.: 1953, ‘A Quasi-Arithmetical Notation for Syntatic Description’,Language 29, 47–58.

  7. Bar-Hillel, Y.: 1964,Language and Information: Selected Essays on Their Theory and Application, Addison-Wesley.

  8. Barry, G. and M. Pickering: 1993, ‘Dependency Categorial Grammar and Coordination’,Linguistics 31(5), 855–902.

  9. van Benthem, J.: 1991,Language in Action: Categories, Lambdas and Dynamic Logic, North-Holland, Amsterdam.

  10. Dowty, D. R., R. F. Wall, and S. Peters: 1981,Introduction to Montague Semantics. D. Reidel, Dordrecht.

  11. Earley, J.: 1970, ‘An Efficient Context-free Parsing Algorithm’,ACM Communications 13(2), 94–102.

  12. Gaifman, H.: 1965, ‘Dependency Systems and Phrase Structure Systems’,Information and Control 8, 304–337.

  13. Gazdar, G.: 1981, ‘Unbounded Dependencies and Coordinate Structure’,Linguistic Inquiry 12, 155–184.

  14. Hays, D. G.: 1964, ‘Dependency Theory: A Formalism and Some Observations’,Language 40, 511–525.

  15. Hausser, R.: 1989,Computation of Language: An Essay on Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics in Natural Man-Machine Communication, Springer-Verlag.

  16. Henderson, J.: 1990,Structure Unification Grammar: A Unifying Framework for Investigating Natural Language, Technical Report MS-CIS-90-94, University of Pennsylvania.

  17. Hoare, C. A. R.: 1969, ‘An Axiomatic Basis for Computer Programming’,Communications of the ACM 12, 576–583.

  18. Hudson, R. A.: 1990,English Word Grammar, Blackwell, Oxford.

  19. Joshi, A. K.: 1987, ‘An Introduction to Tree Adjoining Grammars’, in Manaster-Ramer (ed.),Mathematics of Language, John Benjamins, Amsterdam.

  20. Johnson, M.: 1991, ‘The Computational Complexity of GLR Parsing’, in M. Tomita (ed.),Generalized LR Parsing, Kluwer.

  21. Just, M. and P. Carpenter: 1980, ‘A Theory of Reading, from Eye Fixations to Comprehension’,Psychological Review 87, 329–354.

  22. Kipps, J.R.: 1991, ‘GLR Parsing in Tiem O(n3)’, in M. Tomita (ed.),Generalized LR Parsing, Kluwer.

  23. Kempen, G.: 1992, ‘The Syntax of Coordination, Conjunction Reduction, and Gapping: A Psycholinguistic Approach’, unpublished abstract, University of Leiden.

  24. Lambek, J.: 1958, ‘The Mathematics of Sentence Structure’,American Mathematical Monthly 65, 154–169.

  25. Langendoen, D. T.: 1975, ‘Finite State Parsing of Phrase Structure Languages and the Status of Readjustment Rules in Grammar’,Linguistic Inguiry 6, 533–554.

  26. van der Linden, E.: 1993,A Categorial, Computational Theory of Idioms, PhD Thesis, Utrecht University.

  27. Marcus, M., D. Hindle, and M. Fleck: 1983, ‘D-Theory: Talking about Talking about Trees’, inProceedings of the 21st ACL, Cambridge, Mass. 129–136.

  28. Marslen-Wilson, W.: 1973, ‘Linguistic Structure and Speech Shadowing at Very Short Latencies’,Nature 244, 522–523.

  29. Mel'čuk, I. A.: 1988,Dependency Syntax: Theory and Practice, State University of New York Press, Albany.

  30. Milward, D.: 1991,Axiomatic Grammar, Non-Constituent Coordination, and Incremental Interpretation, PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.

  31. Milward, D.: 1992, ‘Dynamics, Dependency Grammar and Incremental Interpretation’, inProceedings of COLING 92, Nantes, vol. 4, 1095–1099.

  32. Milward, D.: 1994, ‘Non-Constituent Coordination: Theory and Practice’, inProceedings of COLING 94, Kyoto, Japan, 935–941.

  33. Milward, D. and R. Cooper: 1994, ‘Incremental Interpretation: Applications, Theory and Relationship to Dynamic Semantics’, inProceedings of COLING 94, Kyoto, Japan, 748–754.

  34. Moortgat, M.: 1988,Categorial Investigations: Logical and Linguistic Aspects of the Lambek Calculus, Foris, Dordrecht.

  35. Morrill, G.: 1990, ‘Grammar and Logical Types’, in G. Barry and G. Morrill (eds.),Studies in Categorial Grammar, Edinburgh Working Papers in Cognitive Science, 5.

  36. van Oirsouw, R. R.: 1987,The Syntax of Coordination. Croom-Helm.

  37. Pickering, M.: 1991,Processing Dependencies, PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.

  38. Pollard, C., and I. A. Sag: 1993,Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, University of Chicago Press and CSLI Publications, Chicago.

  39. Pulman, S. G.: 1985, ‘A Parser that Doesn't’, inProceedings of the 2nd European ACL, Geneva, 128–135.

  40. Pulman, S. G.: 1986, ‘Grammars, Parsers, and Memory Limitations’,Language and Cognitive Processes 1(3), 197–225.

  41. Sag, I. A., G. Gazdar, T. Wasow, and S. Weisler: 1985, ‘Coordination and How to Distinguish Categories’,Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 3, 117–171.

  42. Shieber, S. M. and M. Johnson: 1993, ‘Variations on Incremental Interpretation’,Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 22(2), 287–318.

  43. Stabler, E. P.: 1991, ‘Avoid the Pedestrian's Paradox’, in R. C. Berwick et al. (eds.),Principle-Based Parsing: Computation and Psycholinguistics, 199–237, Kluwer, Netherlands.

  44. Steedman, M.: 1985, ‘Dependency and Coordination in the Grammar of Dutch and English’,Language 61(3), 523–568.

  45. Steedman, M.: 1988, ‘Combinators and Grammars’, in Oehrle et al. (eds.),Categorial Grammars and Natural Language Structures, 417–442.

  46. Tanenhaus, M. K., S. Garnsey, and J. Boland: 1990, ‘Combinatory Lexical Information and Language Comprehension’, in G. T. M. Altmann (ed.),Cognitive Models of Speech Processing: Psycholinguistic and Computational Perspectives, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

  47. Thompson, H., M. Dixon, and J. Lamping: 1991, ‘Compose-Reduce Parsing’, inProceedings of the 29th ACL, 87–97.

  48. Tomita, M.: 1985,Efficient Parsing for Natural Language, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Ma.

  49. Woods, W.: 1973, ‘An Experimental Parsing System for Transition Network Grammars’, in R. Rustin (ed.),Natural Language Processing, Algorithmics Press, New York.

Download references

Author information

Additional information

I would like to thank John Carroll, Robin Cooper, Jonathan Ginzburg, Joris Hulstijn, Carl Vogel and the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper. Thanks are also due to Steve Pulman, Ewan Klein, David Beaver and Guy Barry for discussion during the early stages of the work, and to other members of the University of Edinburgh Centre for Cognitive Science and the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. The research was supported by the British Science and Engineering Research Council (Research Fellowship B/90/ITF/288, and Research Grant RR30718).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Milward, D. Dynamic dependency grammar. Linguist Philos 17, 561–605 (1994).

Download citation


  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computational Linguistic
  • Dynamic Dependency
  • Dependency Grammar