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Linguistics and Philosophy

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 153–173 | Cite as

Even: The conventional implicature approach reconsidered

  • Robert M. Francescotti
Article

Conclusion

Like Bennett's account of ‘even’, my analysis incorporates the following plausible and widespread intuitions. (a) The word ‘even’ does not make a truth-functional difference; it makes a difference only in conventional implicature. In particular, ‘even’ functions neither as a universal quantifier, nor amost ormany quantifier. The only quantified statement that ‘EvenA isF’ implies is the existential claim ‘There is anx (namely,A) that isF’, but this implication is nothing more than what the Equivalence Thesis already demands. (b) ‘Even’ is epistemic in character, implying some type of unexpectedness, surprise, or unlikelihood. Moreover, despite Kay's arguments to the contrary, this implication is part of the meaning of ‘even’. (c) ‘Even’ is a scalar term, since unexpectedness comes in degrees. And, finally, (d) the felicity of an ‘even’-sentenceS requires thatS* be sufficiently surprising in comparison to its true neighbors. However,pace Bennett, being more surprising than just one true neighbor will not suffice. At the same time, being more surprising than all true neighbors is unnecessary. Suffice it thatS* is more surprising than most true neighbors.

Keywords

Artificial Intelligence Computational Linguistic Universal Quantifier Scalar Term Existential Claim 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. Barker, S.: 1991, ‘Even, Still and Counterfactuals’,Linguistics and Philosophy 14, 1–38.Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, J.: 1982, ‘Even If’,Linguistics and Philosophy 5, 403–418.Google Scholar
  3. Berckmans, P.: 1993, ‘The Quantifier Theory ofEven’,Linguistics and Philosophy 16, 589–611.Google Scholar
  4. Fauconnier, G.: 1975, ‘Pragmatic Scales and Logical Structure’,Linguistic Inquiry 6, 353–375Google Scholar
  5. Karttunen, L. and S. Peters: 1979, ‘Conventional Implicature’, in Oh and Dineen (eds.),Syntax and Semantics. Vol. III:Presupposition. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Kay, P.: 1990, ‘Even’,Linguistics and Philosophy 13, 59–111.Google Scholar
  7. Lycan, W.: 1991, ‘Even andEven if’,Linguistics and Philosophy 14, 115–150.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert M. Francescotti
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of PhilosophyGeorgia State UniversityAtlanta

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