Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 216, Issue 1–2, pp 135–166 | Cite as

Fruit differentiation, palynology, and systematics in theScabiosa group of genera andPseudoscabiosa (Dipsacaceae)

  • Veronika Mayer
  • Friedrich Ehrendorfer
Article

Abstract

Fruits ofDipsacaceae are single-seeded, have bristle-shaped calyx segments and are tightly enclosed by four fused bracts forming an epicalyx. Comparative morphological and anatomical studies reveal a great diversity of epicalyx and calyx, often relevant to fruit dispersal. The present contribution deals with theScabiosa group of genera, the core of theScabioseae tribe. Most of its taxa develop a diaphragma from a meristem on the inside of the epicalyx. This diaphragma, together with the lower part of the epicalyx encloses the fruit proper, whereas the upper parts form a so-called “epi-diaphragma” (ed) and a ± hyaline corona. Differences of the epicalyx with respect to the size and position of the ed, elaboration of the corona, origin of pits (=foveoles) and other morphological and anatomical specializations can be demonstrated. Together with palynological and karyological data these new facts support an improved concept of relationships and systematics for the taxa studied:Scabiosa sect.Scabiosa and sect.Cyrtostemma are closely related and should be united to form the genusScabiosa s. str.;Pycnocomon can be maintained as an independent genus, sister toScabiosa sect.Trochocephalus which then has to be treated as a genus,Lomelosia. In contrast, the following genera have to be included inLomelosia:Tremastelma asLomelosia sect.Callistemma, andScabiosiopsis as part ofLomelosia sect.Lomelosia. Pseudoscabiosa deviates in so many features that it has to be excluded from the redefinedScabioseae s. str.

Key words

Dipsacaceae Pseudoscabiosa Scabiosa Sixalix Lomelosia Pycnocomon Scabiosiopsis Tremastelma Epicalyx fruit anatomy evolution systematics 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veronika Mayer
    • 1
  • Friedrich Ehrendorfer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden, Department of Systematics and EvolutionUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Commission for Interdisciplinary Ecological StudiesAustrian Academy of SciencesViennaAustria

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