Fruits ofDipsacaceae are single-seeded, have bristle-shaped calyx segments and are tightly enclosed by four fused bracts forming an epicalyx. Comparative morphological and anatomical studies reveal a great diversity of epicalyx and calyx, often relevant to fruit dispersal. The present contribution deals with theScabiosa group of genera, the core of theScabioseae tribe. Most of its taxa develop a diaphragma from a meristem on the inside of the epicalyx. This diaphragma, together with the lower part of the epicalyx encloses the fruit proper, whereas the upper parts form a so-called “epi-diaphragma” (ed) and a ± hyaline corona. Differences of the epicalyx with respect to the size and position of the ed, elaboration of the corona, origin of pits (=foveoles) and other morphological and anatomical specializations can be demonstrated. Together with palynological and karyological data these new facts support an improved concept of relationships and systematics for the taxa studied:Scabiosa sect.Scabiosa and sect.Cyrtostemma are closely related and should be united to form the genusScabiosa s. str.;Pycnocomon can be maintained as an independent genus, sister toScabiosa sect.Trochocephalus which then has to be treated as a genus,Lomelosia. In contrast, the following genera have to be included inLomelosia:Tremastelma asLomelosia sect.Callistemma, andScabiosiopsis as part ofLomelosia sect.Lomelosia. Pseudoscabiosa deviates in so many features that it has to be excluded from the redefinedScabioseae s. str.
DipsacaceaePseudoscabiosaScabiosaSixalixLomelosiaPycnocomonScabiosiopsisTremastelmaEpicalyx fruit anatomy evolution systematics