Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 217, Issue 1–2, pp 101–117 | Cite as

Pollination mechanism in southern Brazilian orchids which are exclusively or mainly pollinated by halictid bees

  • Rodrigo B. Singer
  • Andrea A. Cocucci


The pollination process is documented in three sympatric orchids found in Curitiba, Paraná State, southern Brazil. InCampylocentrum aromaticum (Epidendroideae: Angraeciinae) andPrescottia densiflora (Spiranthoideae: Prescotiinae) halictid bees act as main pollinators with minor contributions from other insects, such as Syrphid flies. Because of the pollinarium and column structure inCyclopogon diversifolius. (Spiranthoideae, Spiranthinae), halictid bees are the only insects capable of performing pollination. In the three studied species pollinarium removal and deposition are achieved by interaction between the column and bee's mouth parts. Morphological and ecological flower features in agreement with this pollination mode are discussed and pollination by halictid bees is suggested to occur in a number of South American orchids.

Key words

Orchidaceae Campylocentrum Cyclopogon Prescottia Halictidae Bee pollination flower morphology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, P. B., Lawson, S. D., 1993: Pollination in Australian orchids: a critical assessment of the literature 1882–1992. — Austral. J. Bot.41: 553–75.Google Scholar
  2. Berry, P. E., Calvo, R. N., 1991: Pollinator limitation and position dependent fruit set in the high Andean orchidMyrosmodes cochleare (Orchidaceae). — Pl. Syst. Evol174: 93–101.Google Scholar
  3. Burns-Balogh, P., Robinson, H., 1983: Evolution and phylogeny of thePelexia alliance (Orchidaceae, Spiranthoideae, Spiranthinae). — Syst. Bot.8: 263–268.Google Scholar
  4. Calvo, R. N., 1990: Four-year growth and reproduction ofCyclopogon cranichoides (Orchidaceae) in South Florida. — Amer. J. Bot.77: 736–741.Google Scholar
  5. Catling, P. M., 1983: Pollination of northeastern North AmericanSpiranthes (Orchidaceae). — Canad. J. Bot.61: 1080–1093.Google Scholar
  6. —, 1987: Notes on the breeding systems ofSacoila lanceolata (Aublet) Garay (Orchidaceae). — Ann. Missouri. Bot. Gard.74: 58–68.Google Scholar
  7. Cocucci, A. E., 1952: Sinopsis de las especies cordobesas deOrchidaceae. — Rev. Acad. Nac. Ci. (supl.). Imp. Univ. Nac. Córdoba, Argentina. (Suppl.)Google Scholar
  8. —, 1981: Fertilización en orquídeas. — Anales. Acad. Nac. Ci. Exact. Buenos Aires.33: 1–47.Google Scholar
  9. Dressler, R. L., 1981: The orchids. Natural history and classification. — Cambridge, Mass., London, U. K.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  10. —, 1993: Phylogeny and classification of the orchid family. — Oregon: Dioscorides Press.Google Scholar
  11. Hoehne, F. C., 1945:Orchidaceae. — InHoehne, F. C.: Flora Brasilica12(6), — São Paulo: Instituto de Botânica.Google Scholar
  12. —, 1947: Iconografia dasOrchidaceae Brasilienses. — Sao Paulo: Ministerio de Agricultura.Google Scholar
  13. Kearns, C., Inouye, W., 1993: Techniques for pollination biologists. — Niwot, Colorado: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  14. Klein, R., Hatschbach, G., 1962: Fitofisionomia e notas sobre a vegetação para acompanhar a planta do Município de Curitiba e arredores (Paraná). — Bol. Univ. Paraná, Geogr. Fís.4: 1–27.Google Scholar
  15. Maack, R., 1981: Geografia física do estado do Paraná. 2nd edn. — Rio de Janeiro: Olympio-Secretaria da Cultura do Estado do Paraná, Eds.Google Scholar
  16. Merhoff, L. A., 1983: Pollination in the genusIsotria (Orchidaceae). — Amer. J. Bot.70: 1444–1453.Google Scholar
  17. Nilsson, L. A., Jonsson, L., Ralison, L., Randrianjohany, E., 1985: Monophily and pollination mechanisms inAngraecum arachnites Schltr. (Orchidaceae) in a guild of long tongued hawk-moths (Sphingidae) in Madagascar. — Biol. J. Linn. Soc.26: 1–19.Google Scholar
  18. —, 1987: Angraecoid orchids and hawkmoths in Central Madagascar: Specialized pollination systems and generalist foragers. — Biotropica19: 310–318.Google Scholar
  19. Pabst, G., Dunges, F., 1977: Orchidaceae Brasilienses.2. — Hildesheim: Brucke.Google Scholar
  20. Pijl, L. Van der., Dodson, C. H., 1966: Orchid flowers: their pollination and evolution. — Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami Press.Google Scholar
  21. Rothschild, L. W., Jordan, K., 1903: A revision of the lepidopterous familySphingidae. — Novit. Zool.9 (Suppl.).Google Scholar
  22. Schlindwein, C., 1995: Wildbienen und ihre Trachtpflanzen in einer südbrasilianischen Buschlandschaft: Fallstudie Guaritas, Bestäubung bei Kakteen und Loasaceen. — Stuttgart: Grauer.Google Scholar
  23. Vogel, S., 1954: Blütenbiologische Typen als Elemente der Sippengliederung. — Bot. Stud.1: 1–338.Google Scholar
  24. —, 1963: Duftdrüsen im Dienste der Bestäubung. Über Bau und Funktion der Osmophoren. — Akad. Wiss. Mainz, Abh. Math. — Naturwiss. Kl.10: 598–763.Google Scholar
  25. —, 1990: The role of scent glands in pollination. — Washington: Smithsonian. Institution. Librairies.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodrigo B. Singer
    • 1
  • Andrea A. Cocucci
    • 2
  1. 1.Pós- graduação em BotânicaUniversidade Federal do ParanáCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia VegetalCórdobaArgentina

Personalised recommendations