Unusual periodicity of sex pheromone production in the large black chaferHolotrichia parallela
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(R)-(−)-Linalool was identified as a minor component sex pheromone of the scarab beetleHolotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Field evaluations revealed that, although not attractive per se, (R)-(−)-linalool enhances the attractiveness of the major sex pheromone,L-isoleucine methyl ester (LIME). Analyses of the pheromone titers in the glands of field-collected females demonstrated the occurrence of peak levels of 48-hr (“circabidian”) periodicity. The levels of LIME in the glands of 45-day-old virgin females increased over three times from the scototo the photophase of a calling day, but the amounts of (R)-(−)-linalool did not significantly change. Virgin females had in average two times more LIME and 3.6 times more (R)-(−)-linalool than the average amount found in the field-captured beetles throughout the season.
Key WordsHolotrichia parallela large black chafer scarab beetle Coleoptera Scarabaeidae isoleucine methyl ester linalool sex pheromone circabidian periodicity pheromone titer
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