Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 197, Issue 1–4, pp 19–32 | Cite as

Phylogenetic analysis and evolution of the genusJuglans (Juglandaceae) as determined from nuclear genome RFLPs

  • R. G. Fjellstrom
  • D. E. Parfitt


RFLPs were studied in 13Juglans species to determine phylogenetic relationships inJuglans. Allele frequency data were used to generate genetic distance matrices and fragment data were used to generate genetic distances based upon shared-fragments and to perform parsimony analysis. Although similar cluster analyses result from analysing allelic and shared-fragment distance, the two types of distance values displayed variable correspondence with each other. Parsimony analysis produced a tree similar to distance data trees, but with additional phylogenetic resolution agreeing with previous systematic studies. All analyses indicate an ancient origin ofJ. regia, previously considered a recently derived species.

Key words

Juglandaceae Juglans Evolution nuclear DNA phylogeny restriction fragment length polymorphism RFLPs walnuts 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beineke, W. F., 1983: The genetic improvement of black walnut for timber production. — Plant Breed. Rev.1: 236–266.Google Scholar
  2. Berry, E. W., 1912: Notes on the geological history of the walnuts and hickories. — Pl. World15: 225–240.Google Scholar
  3. Buth, D. G., 1984: The application of electrophoretic data in systematic studies. — Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst.15: 501–522.Google Scholar
  4. Cheng, S. Z., Yang, W. H., 1987: Taxonomic studies of ten species of the genusJuglans based on isozymic zymograms. — Acta Hort. Sin.14: 90–96.Google Scholar
  5. Crother, B., 1990: Is “some better than none” or do alleles frequencies contain phylogenetic useful information? — Cladistics6: 277–281.Google Scholar
  6. Crowhurst, R. N., Lints, R., Atkinson, R. G., Gardner, R. C., 1990: Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the genusActinidia (Actinidiaceae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.172: 193–203.Google Scholar
  7. Elias, T. S., 1980: The complete trees of North America. — New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  8. Farris, J. S., 1972: Estimating phylogenetic trees from distance matrices. — Amer. Naturalist106: 645–688.Google Scholar
  9. , 1985: Distance data revisited. — Cladistics1: 67–85.Google Scholar
  10. Felsenstein, J., 1982: Numerical methods for inferring evolutionary trees. — Quart. Rev. Biol.57: 379–404.Google Scholar
  11. , 1985: Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. — Evolution39: 783–793.Google Scholar
  12. Fjellstrom, R. G., Parfitt, D. E., 1994a: RFLP inheritance and linkage in walnut. — Theor. Appl. Genet.89: 665–670.Google Scholar
  13. , 1994b: Walnut (Juglans supp.) genetic diversity determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. — Genome37: 690–700.Google Scholar
  14. Funk, D. T., 1970: Genetics of black walnut. — USDA For. Ser. Res. Pap. WO-10.Google Scholar
  15. , 1979: Genetics of black walnut. — InJaynes, R. A., (Ed.): Nut tree culture in North America, pp. 51–73. — Hamdem, CT: North. Nut Growers Assoc.Google Scholar
  16. Gerlach, W. L., Bedbrook, J. R., 1979: Cloning and characterization of ribosomal RNA genes from wheat and barley. — Nucleic Acids Res.7: 1869–1885.Google Scholar
  17. Gunter, L. E., Kochert, G., Giannasi, D. E., 1994: Phylogenetic relationships of theJuglandaceae. — Pl. Syst. Evol.192: 11–29.Google Scholar
  18. Kesseli, R., Ochoa, O., Michelmore, R., 1991: Variation at RFLP loci inLactuca spp. and origin of cultivated lettuce (L. sativa). — Genome34: 430–436.Google Scholar
  19. Manchester, S. R., 1987: The fossil history of theJuglandaceae. — Monog. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard.21: 1–137.Google Scholar
  20. Manning, W. E., 1957: The genusJuglans in Mexico and Central America. — J. Arnold Arbor.38: 121–150.Google Scholar
  21. , 1978: The classification within theJuglandaceae. — Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.65: 1058–1087.Google Scholar
  22. McCouch, S. R., Kochert, G., Yu, Z. H., Wang, Z. Y., Khush, G. S., Coffman, W. R., Tanksley, S. D., 1988: Molecular mapping of rice chromosomes. — Theor. Appl. Genet.76: 815–829.Google Scholar
  23. McDaniel, J. C., 1979: Other walnuts including butternut, heartnut, and hybrids. — InJaynes, R. A., (Ed.): Nut tree culture in North America, pp. 98–110. — Hamden, CT: North. Growers Assoc.Google Scholar
  24. McGranahan, G., Leslie, C., 1990: Walnuts (Juglans). — InMoore, J. N., Ballington, J. R., (Eds): Genetic resources of temperate fruit and nut crops.2, pp. 907–951. — Wageningen: Int. Soc. Hort. Sci.Google Scholar
  25. McKenna, M. C., 1983: Holarctic landmass rearrangement, cosmic events, and Cenozoic terrestrial organisms. — Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.70: 459–489.Google Scholar
  26. Miller, J. C., Tanksley, S. D., 1990a: RFLP analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation in the genusLycopersicon. — Theor. Appl. Genet.80: 437–448.Google Scholar
  27. , 1990b: Effect of different restriction enzymes, probe source, and probe length on detecting restriction fragment length polymorphism in tomato. — Theor. Appl. Genet.80: 385–389.Google Scholar
  28. Nei, M., 1972: Genetic distance between populations. — Amer. Naturalist106: 283–292.Google Scholar
  29. , 1987: Molecular evolutionary genetics. — New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Paik-Ro, O. G., Smith, R. L., Knauft, D. A., 1992: Restriction fragment length polymorphism evaluation in six peanut species within theArachis section. — Theor. Appl. Genet.84: 201–208.Google Scholar
  31. Peterson, F. P., Fairbrothers, D. E., 1979: Serological investigations of selected Amentiferous taxa. — Syst. Bot.4: 230–241.Google Scholar
  32. Polechko, M. A., Clarkson, R. B., 1986: A serological study of the systematics of theJuglandaceae. — Biochem. Syst. Ecol.14: 33–39.Google Scholar
  33. Rogers, J. S., 1972: Measures of genetic similarity and genetic distance. — Univ. Texas Pub.7213: 145–153.Google Scholar
  34. Smith, J. F., Doyle, J. J., 1986: Chloroplast DNA variation and evolution in theJuglandaceae. — Amer. J. Bot.73: 730 (abstract).Google Scholar
  35. Sneath, P. H. A., Sokal, R. R., 1973: Numerical taxonomy. — San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  36. Song, K. M., Osborn, T. C., Williams, P. H., 1988:Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). — Theor. Appl. Genet.75: 784–794.Google Scholar
  37. Swofford, D. L., 1981: On the utility of the distance Wagner procedure. — InFunk, V. A., Brooks, D. R., (Eds): Advances in cladistics: proceedings of the first meeting of the Willi Hennig Society, pp. 25–43. — Bronx, NY: New York Bot. Gard.Google Scholar
  38. , 1989: BIOSYS-1: a computer program for the analyis of allelic variation in population genetics and biochemical systematics. — Champaign, IL: Ill. Nat. Hist. Survey.Google Scholar
  39. , 1990: PAUP: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, version 3.0. — Champaign, IL: Ill. Nat. Hist. Survey.Google Scholar
  40. Wang, Z. Y., Second, G., Tanksley, S. D., 1992: Polymorphism and phylogenetic relationships in the genusOryza as determined by analysis of nuclear RFLPs. — Theor. Appl. Genet.83: 565–583.Google Scholar
  41. Whitehead, D. R., 1968: Pollen morphology in theJuglandaceae. II. Survey of the family. — J. Arnold Arbor.46: 369–410.Google Scholar
  42. Wilson, M. A., Gaut, B., Clegg, M. T., 1990: Chloroplast DNA evolve slowly in the palm family (Arecaceae). — Mol. Biol. Evol.7: 303–314.Google Scholar
  43. Wolfe, K. H., Li, W.-H., Sharp, P. M., 1987: Rates of nucleotide substitution vary greatly among plant mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear DNAs. — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA84: 9054–9058.Google Scholar
  44. Wright, S., 1978: Variability within and among natural populations. Evolution and the genetics of populations, 4. — Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  45. Xi, R.-T., 1990: Discussion on the origin of walnut in China. — Acta Horticulturae284: 353–361.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Fjellstrom
    • 1
  • D. E. Parfitt
    • 2
  1. 1.National Forage Seed Production Research CenterAgricultural Research Service, USDACorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Department of PomologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations