Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 222, Issue 1–4, pp 211–223 | Cite as

The collection of pollen by bees

  • R. W. Thorp


Bees require pollen for their reproduction and pollen comprises the basic larval food for bees. Most bees acquire pollen passively during flower visitation, but female bees may also collect pollen actively with the aid of various structural and behavioral adaptations. Most bees have evolved adaptations to concentrate pollen into discrete loads and transport pollen back to their nests. The various structural and behavioral adaptations of female bees for acquiring and transporting pollen are the basis of this review.

Key words

Bees pollen collection pollen transport pollen grooming pollen removal 


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© Springer-Verlag 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Thorp
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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