Journal of Traumatic Stress

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 445–473

Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications

  • Robert S. Pynoos
  • Kathi Nader

DOI: 10.1007/BF00980366

Cite this article as:
Pynoos, R.S. & Nader, K. J Trauma Stress (1988) 1: 445. doi:10.1007/BF00980366


This paper discusses research findings and their implications regarding children's responses to community violence. It outlines (1) theory and findings, (2) early intervention and psychological first aid, and (3) treatment approaches following a violent event. In each section we discuss post-traumatic stress, grief, worry about a significant other, and experience with previous trauma. Detailed steps for psychological first aid are outlined according to age and grade level. Intervention strategies are proposed for each category of response with designed interventions for the classroom, the family, the individual, and the group.

Key words

child victims trauma victims of violence PTSD symptom criteria psychological first aid post-trauma violence response 

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert S. Pynoos
  • Kathi Nader
    • 1
  1. 1.Prevention Intervention Program in Trauma, Violence and Sudden Bereavement in ChildhoodUCLA Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesLos Angeles

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