Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 16, Issue 11, pp 3031–3041 | Cite as

Present and future use of semiochemicals in pest management of bark beetles

  • J. P. Vité
  • E. Baader
Article

Abstract

Attractive compounds affecting the mass aggregation of bark beetle populations on host trees suitable for colonization usually consist of two obligatory components that act synergistically and species-specifically. Semiochemicals inhibiting response act on their own and seem less specific. From nearly 100 species investigated so far, mass aggregation can be simulated with commercial synthetics in about nine species of economic importance. Aspects leading to the application of attractants in monitoring and mass trapping pest populations affecting European spruce forests result from intensive coordinated research at the university, industry, and forestry level. Technology transfer was facilitated by, and adapted to, the infrastructure of European forestry; traps economically replace the trap tree methods conventionally used for centuries. Expected applications in the near future are refined monitoring methods to measure population levels and predict damages. Also, mass trapping should remain a worthwhile tool in preventing beetle damage in forests under management intensive enough to remove excessive breeding material. In the long run, response-inhibiting semiochemicals resulting in the dispersal of pest populations (Ablenkstoffe) may gain wider application. The spruce engraverIps typographus L. and its associatePityogenes chalcographus L. are used as examples to describe the feasibility of developing and applying inhibitors as new tools in the management of bark beetle pests: Applying a slow-release verbenone formulation (verbenone strip) wrapped around the trunk of spruce trees at breast height appears to protect spruces from destructive attack byIps typographus, while small polyethylene ampullae containing terpinene-4-ol counteract aggregation of P. chalcographus. Inhibitors appear applicable in both strategies, damage prevention as well as damage restriction, and consequently may accommodate also pest control in less intensively managed forests. Future application of semiochemicals in the management of bark beetle pests will rest with the availability of effective means and methods and their acceptance by the forestry interest. This acceptance is presently somewhat hampered by misconceptions about mass trapping, and by (1) “missing links” in the knowledge of the beetles′ dispersal and aggregation behavior, (2) the chemosynthesis of chiral pheromone components at the industrial level, and (3) legal barriers.

Key Words

Aggregation pheromones inhibitors Ips typogmphus mass trapping Pityogenes chalcographus terpinene-4-ol verbenone Coleoptera Scolytidae 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Austara, O., Bakke, A., andMitgaard, F. 1986. Response inIps typographus to logging waste odours and synthetic pheromones. Z.Angew. Entomol. 101:194–198.Google Scholar
  2. Baader, E., andVite, J.P. 1986. Zum Einsatz synthetischer Lockstoffe gegen den Kupferstecher.Allg. Forstz. 41:1008.Google Scholar
  3. Bakke, A. 1981. Inhibition of the response inIps typographus to the aggregation pheromone; field evaluation of verbenone and ipsenol. Z.Angew. Entomol. 92:172–177.Google Scholar
  4. Bakke, A. 1987. Repression ofIps typographus infestations in stored logs by semiochemicals.Scand. J. For. Res. 2:179–185.Google Scholar
  5. Bakke, A., andLie, R. 1989. Mass Trapping, pp. 67–87,in A.R. Jutsum and R.F.S. Gordon (eds.). Insect Pheromones in Plant Protection. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  6. Birch, M.C., Light, D.M., andMori, K. 1977. Selective inhibition of response ofIps pint to its pheromone by the (S)-(−)-enantiomer of ipsenol.Nature 270:738–739.Google Scholar
  7. Francke, W., Heemann, V., Gerken, B., Renwick, J.A.A., andVité, J.P. 1977. 2-Ethyl-1, 6-dioxaspiro-(4,4)-nonane, principal aggregation pheromone of Pityogenes chalcographus.Naturwissenschaften 64:590–591.Google Scholar
  8. Francke, W., Sauerwein, P., Vité, J.P., andKlimetzek, D. 1980. The pheromone bouquet ofIps amitinus.Naturwissenschaften 67:147.Google Scholar
  9. Harring, C.M. 1978. Aggregation pheromones of the European fir engraver beetlesPityokteines curvidens, P. spinidens andP. vorontzovi and the role of juvenile hormone in pheromone biosynthesis.Z. Angew. Entomol. 85:281–317.Google Scholar
  10. Kinzer, G.W., Fentiman, A.F., Jr., Foltz, R.L., andRudinsky, J.A. 1971. Bark beetle attractants: 3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one isolated fromDendroctonus pseudotsugae.J. Econ. Entomol. 64:970–971.Google Scholar
  11. König, E., Vité, J.P., andBogenschütz, H. 1981. Überwachung und Bekämpfung vonIps typographus andTrypodendron lineatum (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) mit synthetischen Lockstoffen in Kunstfallen.Mitt. Dtsch. Ges.Allg. Angew. Entomol. 2:326–332.Google Scholar
  12. Kohnle, U. 1984. Beziehung zwischen der Austrocknung von Fangbäumen und ihrer Attraktivität für Fichtenborkenkäfer.Allg. Forst.-Jagdztg. 155:270–275.Google Scholar
  13. Kohnle, U., Francke, W., andBakke, A. 1985.Polygraphus poligraphus: Response to enantiomers of beetle specific terpene alcohols and bicyclic ketal.Z. Angew. Entomol. 100:5–8.Google Scholar
  14. Payne, T.L., andBillings, R.F. 1989. Evaluation of (−)-verbenone applications for suppressing southern pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestations.Econ. Entomol. 82:1702–1708.Google Scholar
  15. Punja, N. 1989. The registration of pheromones, pp. 295–302,in A.R. Jutsum and R.F.S. Gordon (eds.) Insect Pheromones in Plant Protection. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  16. Renwick, J.A.A., andVité, J.P. 1969. Bark beetle attractants: Mechanism of colonization byDendroctonus frontalis.Nature 224:1222–1223.Google Scholar
  17. Schlyter, F., Byers, J.A., andLöfquist, J. 1987. Attraction to pheromone sources of different quantity, quality, and spacing density-regulation mechanisms in bark beetlesIps typographus.J. Chem. Ecol. 13:1503–1523.Google Scholar
  18. Vaupel, O., Dimitri, L., König, E., andBerwig, W. 1986. Zur Optimierung des Falleneinsatzes bei Buchdruckerund gestreiften Nutzholzborkenkäfer.Allg. Forstzeitschr. 41:572–574.Google Scholar
  19. Vité, J.P. 1989. Lock- und Ablenkstoffe im Waldschutz gegen Borkenkäfer.Mitt. Dtsch. Ges. Allg. Angew. Ent. 7:123–131.Google Scholar
  20. Vité, J.P., andPitman, G.B. 1972. 3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-ol isolated fromDendroctonus.Naturwissenschaften 59:469.Google Scholar
  21. Vité, J.P., Klimetzek, D., Loskant, G., Hedden, R., andMori, K. 1976. Chirality of insect pheromones: Response inhibition by inactive antipodes.Naturwissenschaften 63:582–583.Google Scholar
  22. Vité, J.P., Ohloff, G., andBillings, R.F. 1978. Pheromonal chirality and integrity of aggregation response in southern species of the bark beetleIps sp.Nature 272:817–818.Google Scholar
  23. Vité, J.P., Billings, R.F., Ware, C.W., andMori, K. 1985. Southern pine beetle: Enhancement or inhibition of aggregation response mediated by enantiomers of endo-brevicomin.Naturwissenschaften 72:99.Google Scholar
  24. Weslien, J., Annila, E., Bakke, A., Bejer, B., Eidmann, H.H., Narostad, K., Nikula, A., andRavn, H.P. 1989. Estimating risks for spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) damage using pheromone baited traps and trees.Scand. J. For. Res. 4:87–89.Google Scholar
  25. Wulf, A. 1987. Wie steht es um den integrierten Pflanzenschutz im Forst?Nachrichtenbl. Dtsch. Pflanzenschutzdienstes (Braunschweig) 39:22–24.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. Vité
    • 1
  • E. Baader
    • 1
  1. 1.Forstzoologisches Institut der UniversitätFreiburg i.Br.FRG

Personalised recommendations