Minds and Machines

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 75–80 | Cite as

Some thoughts on Akin's spiteful computer

  • Ben Goertzel
General Articles


Akin's determinism paradox involves a physical system that predicts its own behavior, and then “spitefully” defies it. Here this paradox is reformulated in purely computational language, in terms of virtual machines. The paradox is related to the theory of self-reproducing automata; and a mathematical conjecture is given which, if verified, would resolve the paradox.

Key words

Determinism free will virtual machines computational complexity 


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  3. Dennett, D. (1991).Consciousness Explained, Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  4. Goertzel, B. (1992).The Structure of Intelligence, New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  5. Goertzel, B. (1993).The Evolving Mind, New York: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
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  7. Von Neumann, J. (1966).Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata, Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ben Goertzel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mathematical SciencesUniversity of NevadaLas VegasUSA

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