Advertisement

Neurochemical Research

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 65–69 | Cite as

Thyroid hormones influence the astroglial plasticity: Changes in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and of its encoding message

  • P. J. Andres-Barquin
  • C. Fages
  • G. Le Prince
  • B. Rolland
  • M. Tardy
Original Articles

Abstract

Normal development of the brain requires the presence of thyroid hormones. To progress in the understanding of the contribution of astrocytes to brain pathophysiology we investigated the effect of T3, on the astroglial plasticity through the expression of two astroglial proteins: the Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the glutamine synthetase (GS). Western and northern blots were performed using astroglial primary cultures initiated from neocortex and cerebellum of newborn mice. Treatment with T3 caused a decrease of GFAP and of its encoding message level in both areas, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of its expression, whereas it had no apparent effect on GS expression. This reduction in GFAP expression was developmentally regulated: it was significant in proliferating but not in more mature astrocytes. T3 effect on astrocytes was higher in the cerebellum compared to the neocortex, suggesting the presence of astroglial subpopulations differing by their sensitivity to T3. The astroglial specific response to T3, corresponds to a precise, targetted and regulated adaptation of the cell. Factors of the microenvironment may modulate this specific astroglial response in vivo.

Key Words

T3 astrocytes plasticity GFAP GS mRNA 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Crantz, R. F., Silva, J. E., and Larsen, P. R. 1982. An analysis of the sources and quantity of 3, 5, 3′-Triodothyronine specifically bound to nuclear receptors in rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Endocrinoly. 110:367–375.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaplan, M. M., Mc Cann, U. D., Yaskowski, K. A., Larsen, P. R. and Leonard, J. L. 1981. Anatomical distribution of phenolic and Tyrosyl iodothyronine deiodinases in the nervous system of normal and hypothyroidrats. Endocrinoly. 109:397–402.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Courtin, F., Chantroux, F., Francon, J. 1986. Thyroid hormone metabolism by glial cells in primary culture. Molec. and Cell. endrocrinoly. 48:167–178.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nunez, J. 1985. Thyroid hormones. In: Handbook of Neurochemistry, Vol. 8. A. Lajtha, ed. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York. 8:1–28.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nunez, J., Couchie, D., Faivre-Bauman, A., Puymirat, J., Fages, C., Bridoux, A. M., Guilleminot, J., Tardy, M., and Tixier-Vidal, A. 1987 Microtubules and brain astroglial and neuronal differentiation. Effects of thyroid hormones. In: Hormones and cell regulation. No11, J.E. Dumont et J. Nunez eds. Colloque INSERM/John Libbey Eurotext Ltd. 153:181–194.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Draves, D. J., Manley, N. B., and Timiras, P. S. 1986. Glial hormone receptors: thyroid hormones and microtubules in gliomas and neuroblastomas. In: Astrocytes. Cell Biology and Pathology of Astrocytes. Fedoroff, A. Vernadakis ed. Academic Press, Inc. Orlando, Florida 3:183–201.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clos, J. 1986 Developing astroglia in abnormal thyroid states. In: Astrocytes. Cell Biology and Pathology of Astrocytes, S. Fedoroff, A. Vernadakis eds. Academic Press, Inc. Orlando, Florida. 3:167–182.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Faivre-Sarrailh, C., Rami, A., Fages, C., and Tardy, M. 1991 Effect of thyroid deficiency on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and GRAPmRNA in the cerebellum and hippocampal formation of the developing rat. Glia. 4:267–284.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Patel, A. J., Hunt, A., and Kiss, J. 1989. Neonatal thyroid deficiency has differential effects on cell specific markers for astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the rat brain. Neurochem Int. 15:239–298.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tardy, M., Eages, C., Le Prince, G., Rolland, B., and Nunez, J. 1990. Regulation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and of its encoding mRNA in the developing brain and in cultured astrocytes. In: Molecular aspects of development and aging of the nervous system. J. M. Lauder ed., Plenum Press, New York. 41–52.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Caldani M., Rolland B., Fages C., and Tardy M. 1982. Glutamine synthetase activity, during mouse brain development. Experientia 38:1199–1202.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bardakdjian, J., Tardy, M., Pimoule, C., and Gonnard, P. 1979. GABA metabolism in cultured glial cells. Neurochem. Res. 4:519–529.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gavaret, J. M., Toru-Delbauffe, D., Baghdassarian-Chalaye, D., Pomerance, M., and Marie P. 1991. Thyroid hormone action induction on morphological changes and protein secretion in astroglial cell cultures. Developmental Brain Research 58:43–49.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Towbin, H., Staehlin, T., and Gordon, J. 1979. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 76:4350–4354.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lehrach, H., Diamond, D., Wozney, J. M., and Boedtker, H. 1987. RNA molecular weight determination by gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, a critical reexamination. Biochemistry, 16:4743–4751.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fages, C., Khelil, M., Rolland, B., Bridoux, A. M., and Tardy, M. 1988. Glutamine Synthetase: a marker of an astroglial subpopulation in primary cultures of defined brain areas. Dev. Neurosci. 10:47–56.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lauder, J. and McCarthy K. 1986. Neuron-glia interactions.In (ed.) Fedoroff S. and Vernadakis A. Astrocytes. 2:295–313. Academic Press. London.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Murphy S., and Pearce B. 1987. Functional receptors for neurotransmitters on astroglial cells. Neuroscience 22:381–394.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Walz, W. 1989. Role of glial cells in the regulation of the brain ion microenvironment. Prog. Neurobiol. 33:309–333.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chader, G. J. 1971. Hormonal effects on the neural retina: induction of glutamine synthetase by cyclic-3′-5′-AMP. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 43:1102–1105.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O'Callaghan J. P., Brinton R. E. and McEwen B. S. 1991. Glucocorticoids regulate the synthesis of glial fibrillary acidic protein in intact and adrenalectomized rats but do not affect its expression following brain injury. J. Neurochem. 57:860–869.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Toran-Allerand D. C., Bentham W., Miranda R. C., and Anderson J. P. 1991. Insulin influences astroglial morphology organotypic cultures. Brain Res. 558:296–304.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Andres-Barquin
    • 1
  • C. Fages
    • 1
  • G. Le Prince
    • 1
  • B. Rolland
    • 1
  • M. Tardy
    • 1
  1. 1.INSERM U.282-Hôpital Henri MondorCréteilFrance

Personalised recommendations