Advertisement

Neurochemical Research

, Volume 8, Issue 11, pp 1471–1480 | Cite as

Utilization of tyrosine and tryptophan for protein synthesis by undernourished developing rat brain

  • S. Kalyanasundaram
  • P. S. V. Ramanamurthy
Original Articles

Abstract

Incorporation of tracer doses of radiolabeled tryptophan and tyrosine into brain proteins was investigated in rats malnourished during gestation and lactation. Age and time dependent increases in the radioactivity was observed in the whole homogenate and in the TCA insoluble fraction. Protein malnourished rats showed increased incorporation of tryptophan and tyrosine. However the diet restricted (Pair-fed) animals showed increased incorporation of tyrosine only. The increased incorporation may probably be due to changes in the pool size of the amino acids and effective recycling of the amino acids. The enhanced utilization in protein synthesis may also probably offer a mechanism for conservation of these amino acids.

Keywords

Tyrosine Protein Synthesis Tryptophan Pool Size Insoluble Fraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allen, R. E., Raines, P. L., andRegen, D. M. 1969. Regulatory significance of transfer RNA charging levels. 1. Measurement of charging levels in livers of chow-fed rats, fasting rats and rats fed balanced or imbalanced mixture of amino acids. Biochim. Biphys. Acta 190:323–336.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aoki, K., andSiegel, F. L. 1970. Hyperphenylalaninemia: Disaggregation of brain polysomes in young rats. Science 168:129–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Balazs, R., Lewis, P. D., andPatel, A. J. 1975. Effects of metabolic factors on brain development. Pages 83–115in M. A. B. Brazier (ed.) Growth and Development of the brain. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Banay-Schwartz, M., Giuffrida, A. M., De Guzman, T., Sershen, H., andLajtha, A. 1979. Effect of undernutrition on cerebral protein metabolism. Exptl. Neurol. 65:157–168.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bourgoin, S., Faivre-Bauman, A., Bend, P., Glowinski, J., andHamon, M. 1974. Plasma tryptophan and 5-HT metabolism in the CNS of the new born rat. J. Neurochem. 23:319–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dallman, P. R., andManies, E. C. 1973. Protein deficiency: Turnover of protein and reutilisation of amino acid in cell fractions of rat liver. J. Nutr. 103:257–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dickerson, J. W. T., andPao, S. K. 1975. The effect of a low protein diet and exogenous insulin on brain tryptophan and its metabolites in the weanling rat. J. Neurochem. 25:559–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dunlop, D. S., Vanelden, W., andLajtha, A. 1978. Protein degradation rates in regions of the central nervous system in vivo during development. Biochem. J. 170:637–642.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Enwonwu, C. O., andGlover, V. 1973. Alterations in cerebral protein metabolism in the progeny of protein calorie deficient rats. J. Nutr. 103:61–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Freedman, L. S., Samuels, S., Fish, I., Schwartz, S. A., Lange, B., Katz, M., andMorgano, L. 1980. Sparing of the brain in neonatal undernutrition: Amino acid transport and incorporation into brain and muscle. Science 207:902–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Garlick, P. J., Millward, D. J., James, W. P. T., andWaterlow, J. C. 1975. The effect of protein deprivation and starvation on the rates of protein synthesis in tissues of the rat. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 414:71–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Griffin, W. S. T., Woodward, D. J., andChanda, R. 1977. Malnutrition and brain development: Cerebral weight, DNA, RNA, protein and histological correlations. J. Neurochem. 28:1269–1279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johnson, T. C. 1976. Regulation of protein synthesis during postnatal maturation of the brain. J. Neurochem. 27:17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kalyanasundaram, S. 1976. Effect of dietary protein and calorie deficiency on tryptophan levels in the developing rat brain. J. Neurochem 27:1245–1247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kalyanasundaram, S., andRamanamurthy, P. S. V. 1981. Effect of undernutrition on tryptophan and tyrosine hydroxylase in the developing rat brain. J. Neurochem. 36:1580–1582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kalyanasundaram, S., andRamanamurthy, P. S. V. 1982. Free amino acid level in undernourished developing rat brain. Neurochem. Res. 7:469–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McFarlane, I. G., andVon Holt, C. 1969. Metabolism of amino acids in protein calorie deprived rats. Biochem. J. 111:557–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miller, M., Leahy, J. P., Stern, W. C., Morgane, P. J., andResnick, O. 1977. Tryptophan availability: Relation to elevated brain serotonin in developmentally protein malnourished rats. Expt. Neurol. 57:142–157.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miller, M., Leahy, J. P., McConville, F., Morgane, P. J., andResnick, O. 1977. Effects of developmental protein malnutrition on tryptophan utilisation in brain and peripheral tissues. Brain Res. Bull. 2:347–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miller, M., Leahy, J. P., McConville, F., Morgane, P. J., andResnick, O. 1978. Utilisation of14C-tyrosine in brain and peripheral tissues of developmentally protein malnourished rats. Brain Res. Bull. 3:681–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nettleton, J. A., andHegsted, D. M. 1974. The effects of protein and calorie restriction on tissue nitrogen content and protein catabolism. Nutr. Metabol. 17:166–180.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oja, S. S. 1972. Incorporation of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan into protein of homogenates from developing rat brain: Kinetics of incorporation and reciprocal inhibition. J. Neurochem. 19:2057–2070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Patel, A. J., Balazs, R., andJohnson, A. L. 1973. Effect of undernutrition on cell formation in the rat brain. J. Neurochem. 20:1151–1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ramanamurthy, P. S. V. 1977. Maternal and early postnatal malnutrition and neurotransmitter amines in rat brain. J. Neurochem. 28:253–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schepartz, B. 1963. Oxidation ofl-amino acids and incorporation into proteins in homogenates of brain at two stages of development. J. Neurochem. 10:825–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sellinger, O. Z., Ohlsson, W. G., Kohl, H. G., andZand, R. 1971. Precursor and age dependent differences in in vivo rates of protein synthesis in the cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 34:413–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Snedecor, G. W., andCochran, W. G. 1967. Pages 272–273.in Statistical Methods (6th edition) Oxford and IBM Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sobotka, T. J., Cook, H. P., andBrodie, R. E. 1974. Neonatal malnutrition: Neurochemical, hormonal and behavioural manifestations. Brain Res. 65:443–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stern, W. C., Miller, M., Forbes, W. B., Morgane, P. J., andResnick, O. 1973. Ontogeny of the levels of biogenic amines in various parts of the brain and peripheral tissues in normal and protein malnourished rats. Expt. Neurol. 49:314–326.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stern, W. C., Miller, M., Forbes, W. B., Leahy, J. P., Morgane, P. J., andResnick, O. 1976. Effects of protein malnutrition during development on protein synthesis in brain and peripheral tissues. Brain Res. Bull. 1:27–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wiggins, R. C., Miller, S. L., Benjamins, J. A., Krigman, M. R., andMorell, P. 1976. Myelin synthesis during postnatal nutritional deprivation and subsequent rehabilitation. Brain Res. 107:257–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zamenhof, S., Van Mathens, E., andGravel, L. 1971. DNA (Cell number) and protein in neonatal rat brain: Alteration by timing of maternal dietary protein restriction. J. Nutr. 101:1265–1270.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kalyanasundaram
    • 1
  • P. S. V. Ramanamurthy
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of NutritionIndian Council of Medical Research Jamai-Osmania P.O.HyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations