Advertisement

Measurement of depression: Comparison between self-reports and clinical assessments of depressed outpatients

  • Aquilino Polaino
  • Carmen Senra
Article

Abstract

Agreement among several depression scales was investigated as regard the relative influences of administration mode (self-rating or clinical rating) and scale content. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), and three corresponding scales with identical structure and content but the alternative administration mode were administered to 47 outpatients with diagnoses of DSM-III major depression disorders. Correlations between the total scores and the degrees of association between corresponding items of different scales were calculated. The results suggest that differences in content contribute more to inter-scale discrepancy than differences in administration mode. The implications for the evaluation of outpatients with major depression are discussed.

Key words

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) interscale agreement 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arfwidsson, L., D'Elia, G., Laurell, B., Ottosson, J., Perris, C., & Persson, G. (1974). Can self-rating replace doctor's rating in evaluating anti-depressive treatment?Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 50, 16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, J., & Coppen, A. (1976). A comparison between the Hamilton Rating Scale and Beck Inventory in the measurement of depression.British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 486–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bech, P. (1981). Rating scales for affective disorders: Their validity and consistency.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 64 (Suppl. 295), 17–31.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., & Beamesderfer, A. (1974). Assessment of depression: The depression inventory. In P. Pichot (Ed.),Psychological measurements in psychopharmacology. Moderns problems of pharmacopsychiatry (pp. 151–169). Basel, Switzerland: Karger.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression.Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation.Psychological Review, 8, 77–100.Google Scholar
  7. Biggs, J. T., Wylie, L. T., & Ziegler, V. E. (1978). Validity of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale.British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 381–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carroll, B. J., Fielding, J. M., & Blashki, T. G. (1973). Depression rating scales.Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 361–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carroll, B. J., Feinberg, M., Smouse, P. E., Rawson, S. G., & Greden, J. F. (1981). The Carroll Rating Scale for Depression. I. Development reliability and validity.British Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 194–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Conde, V., & Esteban, T. (1973). Revisión crítica de dos adaptaciones castellanas de la “Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS)” de Zung.Archivos de Neurobiología, 34, 375–392.Google Scholar
  11. Conde, V., & Franch, J. I. (1984).Escalas de evaluación comportamental para la cuantificación de la sintomatología psicopatológica en los trastornos angustiosos y depresivos. Madrid: Upjohn.Google Scholar
  12. Conde, V., & Sánchez, J. (1969). La escala autoaplicada para la depresión de Zung.Archivos de Neurobiología, 33, 535–558.Google Scholar
  13. Conde, V., & Useros, E. (1974). El inventario para la medida de la depresión de Beck.Revista de Psiquiatría y Psicología Médica de Europa y America Latina, 12, 153–167.Google Scholar
  14. Conde, V., Escriba, J., & Izquierdo, J. (1970a). Estudio crítico de la escala autoaplicada para la medida cuantitativa de la depresión de Zung.Revista Clinica Española, 117, 71–78.Google Scholar
  15. Conde, V., Escriba, J., & Izquierdo, J. (1970b). Evaluación estadística y adaptación castellana de la escala autoaplicada para la depresión de Zung.Archivos de Neurobiología, 33, 281–303.Google Scholar
  16. Conde, V., Esteban, T., & Useros, E. (1976). Revisión crítica de dos adaptación castellana del cuestionario de Beck.Revista de Psicología General y Aplicada, 31, 469–497.Google Scholar
  17. Davies, B., Burrows, G., & Poynton, C. (1975). A comparative study of depression rating scales.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 9, 21–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fitzgibbon, M. L., Cella, D. F., & Sweeney, J. A. (1988). Redundancy in measures of depression.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 372–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hagan, L. D., & Schauer, A. H. (1985). Assessment of depression in alcoholics: Comment on Hesselbrock et al.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 64–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression.Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 23, 56–62.Google Scholar
  21. Hamilton, M. (1967). Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness.British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 278–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hamilton, M. (1986). The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. In N. Sartorius & T. Ban (Eds.),Assessment of depression (pp. 143–152). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  23. Hedlund, J. L., & Vieweg, B. W. (1979a). The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale: A comprehensive review.Journal of Operational Psychiatry, 10, 51–64.Google Scholar
  24. Hedlund, J. L., & Vieweg, B. W. (1979b). The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: A comprehensive review.Journal of Operational Psychiatry, 10, 149–165.Google Scholar
  25. Hesselbrock, M., Tennen, H., Hesselbrock, V., Workman, K., & Meyer, R. (1985). Assessment of depression in alcoholics: Further considerations-Reply to Hagan and Schauer.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 67–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lambert, M. J., Hatch, D. R., Kingston, M. D., & Edwards, B. C. (1986). Zung, Beck, and Hamilton rating scales as measures of treatment outcome: A meta-analytic comparison.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 54–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mayer, J. M. (1977). Assessment of depression. In P. McReynold (Ed.),Advances in psychological assessment, Vol. 4 (pp. 358–425). Washington DC: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  28. Moran, P. W., & Lambert, M. J. (1983). A review of current assessment tools for monitoring changes in depression. In M. J. Lambert, E. R. Christensen, S. S. DeJulio (Eds.),The measurement of psychotherapy outcome in research and evaluation (pp. 263–303). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Paykel, E. S., & Norton, K. R. W. (1986). Self-report and clinical interview in the assessment of depression. In N. Sartorius & T. A. Ban (Eds.),Assessment of depression (pp. 356–366). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  30. Polaino-Lorente, A. (1985).La depresión. Barcelona: Martinez Roca.Google Scholar
  31. Post, R. D., Alford, C. E., Baker, N. J., Franks, R. D., House, R. M., Jackson, A. M., & Petersen, J. L. (1985). Comparison of self-reports and clinicians' ratings of unipolar major depression.Psychological Reports, 57, 479–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Prusoff, B. A., Klerman, G. L., & Paykel, E. S. (1972). Concordance between clinical assessment and patients' self-report in depression.Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 546–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Rehm, L. P. (1976). Assessment of depression. In M. Hersen & A. Bellack (Eds.),Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook (pp. 233–259). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  34. Rehm, L. P., & O'Hara, M. W. (1985). Item characteristics of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.Journal of Psychiatry Research, 19, 31–41.Google Scholar
  35. Sartorius, N. (1979). Research on affective psychoses with the framework of the WHO programe. In M. Schon & E. Strömgren (Eds.), Origin, prevention and treatment of affective disorders (p. 207). London: Academis Press.Google Scholar
  36. Schnurr, R., Hoaken, P. C. S., & Jarret, F. J. (1976). Comparison of depression inventories in a clinical population.Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 21, 473–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Schwab, J. J., Bialow, M., Brown, J. M., & Holzer, C. E. (1967). Diagnosing depression in medical patients.Annals of Internal Medicine, 67, 695–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Seitz, F. C. (1970). Five psychological measures of neurotic depression: A correlation study.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, 504–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Senra, C. (1990). Semistructured diagnostic interview for DSMIII major depression (available from Dr. C. Senra, Dpto. Psicología Clínica, 15705-Santiago de Compostela, La Coruña, Spain).Google Scholar
  40. Steer, R. A., Beck, A. T., & Garrison, B. (1986). Applications of the Beck Depression Inventory. In N. Sartorius & T. A. Ban (Eds.),Assessment of depression (pp. 123–142). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  41. Steer, R. A., Beck, A. T., Riskind, J. H., & Brown, G. (1987). Relationships between the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression in depressed outpatients.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 9, 327–339.Google Scholar
  42. Wetzler, S., Kahn, R., Strauman, T., & Dubro, A. (1989). Diagnosis of major depression by self-report.Journal of Personality Assessment, 53, 22–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. White, J., White, K., & Razani, J. (1984). Effects of endogenicity and severity on consistency of standard depression rating scales.Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 45, 260–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Williams, J. B. W. (1988). A Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 742–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Williams, J. G., Barlow, D. H., & Agras, W. S. (1972). Behavioural measurement of severe depression.Archives of General Psychiatry, 27, 330–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Zich, J. M., Attkisson, C., & Greenfield, T. K. (1990). Screening for depression in primary care clinics: The CES-D and the BDI.International Journal Psychiatry in Medicine, 20, 259–277.Google Scholar
  47. Zung, W. W. K. (1965). A self-rating depression scale.Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 63–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Zung, W. W. K. (1986). Zung Self-rating Depression Scale and Depression Status Inventory. In N. Sartorius & T. A. Ban (Eds.),Assessment of depression (pp. 221–231). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aquilino Polaino
    • 1
  • Carmen Senra
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Psicología ClínicaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Psicología Clínica y Psicobiología, Facultad de PsicologíaUniversidad de Santiago de CompostelaCoruñaSpain

Personalised recommendations