Journal of Behavioral Education

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 253–266 | Cite as

Precision teaching's unique legacy from B. F. Skinner

  • Ogden R. Lindsley


Precision Teaching's unique legacy from B. F. Skinner was the monitoring system of rate of response and the cumulative response recorder. This legacy is unique because the other instructional systems derived from Skinner's work do not use his monitoring method exclusively. Rate of response, cumulative recording and their extension to Precision Teaching's standard celeration charting are briefly described. In addition, Precision Teaching's nature, history, costs, distribution, inductive data-base, and academic base are briefly described. Skinner's legacy to education was a sound behavioral scientific base and his unique legacy to Precision Teaching was self-monitoring for real time decision making by learners and teachers.

Key words

Precision Teaching Skinner rate of response cumulative recorder standard celeration chart 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albrecht, P. L. (1984).Summary of ten major school Precision Teaching programs Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  2. All, P. (1977).From get truckin' to Jaws, students improve their learning picture. Unpublished master's Thesis, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  3. Barrett, B. H. (1987). Drifting? Course? Destination?: A review of research methods in applied behavior analysis: Issues and advances.The Behavior Analyst, 10, 253–276.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, R. J. (1976).Report for the Office of Education Dissemination Review Panel, 1976, Special Education. Great Falls Public Schools, Precision Teaching Project: Great Falls, Montana.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, R. J. (1981).High School Basic Skills Improvement Project: Validation Report for ESEA Title IV-C. Great Falls Public Schools, Precision Teaching Project: Great Falls, Montana.Google Scholar
  6. Binder, C. V. (1988). Precision teaching: Measuring and attaining exemplary academic performance.Youth Policy, 10 [No. 7], 12–15.Google Scholar
  7. Edwards, J. S. (1969).Precisely teaching children labelled learning disabled. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  8. Eshleman, J. W. (1990). The history and future of Precision Teaching.Journal of Precision Teaching, 7, (No. 2 Fall), 18–27.Google Scholar
  9. Ferster, C. B. & Skinner, B. F. (1957).Schedules of Reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  10. Fink, E. R. (1968).Performance and Selection Rates of Emotionally Disturbed and Mentally Retarded Preschoolers on Montessori Materials. Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  11. Haughton, E. C. (1971). Great gains from small starts.Teaching Exceptional Children, 3, 141–146.Google Scholar
  12. Johnson, K. R. (1989).Executive Summary. Seattle, Washington: Morningside Corporation.Google Scholar
  13. Johnson, N. J. (1971).Acceleration of Inner-City Elementary School Pupils' Reading Performance. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  14. Johnston, J. M., & Pennypacker, H. S. (1980).Strategies and tactics of human behavioral research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Keller, F. S. & Schoenfeld, W. N. (1950).Principles of Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  16. Koenig, C. H. (1967).Precision Teaching with Emotionally Disturbed Children. Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  17. Koenig, C. H. (1971). The behavior bank: a system for sharing precise information.Teaching Exceptional Children, 3, 157.Google Scholar
  18. Koenig, C. H. (1972).Charting the Future Course of Behavior. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  19. Lindsley, O. R. (1956). Operant conditioning methods applied to research in chronic schizophrenia,Psychiatric Research Reports, 5, 118–139.Google Scholar
  20. Lindsley, O. R. (1960). Characteristics of the behavior of chronic psychotics as revealed by free-operant conditioning methods.Diseases of the Nervous System.21 (monograph supplement), 66–78.Google Scholar
  21. Lindsley, O. R. (1962). A behavioral measure of television viewing.Journal of Advertising Research, 2, 2–12.Google Scholar
  22. Lindsley, O. R. (1964). Direct measurement and prosthesis of retarded behavior.Journal of Education, 147, 62–81.Google Scholar
  23. Lindsley, O. R. (1966). An experiment with parents handling behavior at home.A Johnstone Bulletin, 9, 27–36.Google Scholar
  24. Lindsley, O. R. (1990a). Precision teaching: By teachers for children.Teaching Exceptional Children, Spring, 10–15.Google Scholar
  25. Lindsley, O. R. (1990b). Our aims, discoveries, failures, and problem.Journal of Precision Teaching, 7 (No. 2, Fall), 7–17.Google Scholar
  26. Lindsley, O. R., Koenig, C. H., Nichol, J. B., Kanter, D. B. & Young, N. A. (1971).Handbook of Precise Behavior Facts. Kansas City, Kansas: Precision Media. 2 volumes. Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  27. Maloney, M., & Humphrey, J. E. (Interviewer). (1982). The Quinte Learning Center: A successful venture in behavioral education, an interview with Michael Maloney.The Behavioral Educator, 4, No. 1, 1–3.Google Scholar
  28. McGreevy, P. (1981).Teaching and Learning in Plain English. Kansas, Missouri: Mcgreevy Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. Pennypacker, H. S., Koenig, C. H., & Lindsley, O. R. (1972).Handbook of the standard behavior chart. Kansas City, KS: Precision Media.Google Scholar
  30. Skinner, B. F. (1938).The behavior of organisms. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Skinner, B. F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary?Psychology Review, 57, 193–216.Google Scholar
  32. Skinner, B. F. (1953).Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. Skinner, B. F. (1956). A case history in scientific method.American Psychologist, 11, 221–233.Google Scholar
  34. Skinner, B. F. (1976). Farewell, my lovely!Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 25, 218.Google Scholar
  35. Slezak, S. A. (1969).Two Years of Precisely Teaching with Orthopedically Handicapped Pupils. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  36. Sokolove, H. (1978).Blueprint for PRODUCTive Classrooms. Shawnee Mission School District. ESEA Title IV-C. Kansas State Department of Education.Google Scholar
  37. Spence, I. & Maloney, M. (1990).Educational computer software: What's out there? Presented at the 9th International Precision Teaching Conference, Boston, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  38. Starlin, A. (1971). Charting group and individual instruction.Teaching Exceptional Children, 3, 135–136.Google Scholar
  39. Starlin, A. (1972). Sharing a message about curriculum with my teacher friends. In J. B. Jordan & L. S. Robbins (Eds.),Let's Try Doing Something Else Kind of Thing (pp. 13–19). Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.Google Scholar
  40. Starlin, A. H. (1986).Survey of fifteen principals trained in Precision Teaching exploring their use of the standard celeration Chart. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  41. Starlin, C. M. (1970).The use of daily recording as an aid in teaching oral reading. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oregon. [Dissertation Abstracts International, 1971,32, 812a (University Microfilms No. 71-16, 844). ]Google Scholar
  42. Watkins, C. L. (1988). Project Follow Through: A story of the identification and neglect of effective instruction.Youth Policy, 10 [No. 7], 7–11.Google Scholar
  43. West, R. P., Young, K. R., & Spooner, F. (1990). Precision teaching, an introduction.Teaching Exceptional Children, Spring, 4–9.Google Scholar
  44. White, O. R. (1986). Precision teaching-Precision Learning.Exceptional Children, 52, 522–534.Google Scholar
  45. Willis, B. (1974).Progress Report IV SST for Precise Educational Remediation for Managers of Specific Learning Disabilities. Child Service Demonstration Programs, State of Washington, P.L. 91–230 Part G.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ogden R. Lindsley
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of KansasLawrence

Personalised recommendations