Advertisement

Biomechanical analysis of drop and countermovement jumps

  • M. F. Bobbert
  • M. Mackay
  • D. Schinkelshoek
  • P. A. Huijing
  • G. J. van Ingen Schenau
Article

Summary

For 13 subjects the performance of drop jumps from a height of 40 cm (DJ) and of countermovement jumps (CMJ) was analysed and compared. From force plate and cine data biomechanical variables including forces, moments, power output and amount of work done were calculated for hip, knee and ankle joints. In addition, electromyograms were recorded from five muscles in the lower extremity. The results obtained for DJ appeared to depend on jumping style. In a subgroup of subjects making a movement of large amplitude (i. e. bending their hips and knees considerably before pushing off) the push-off phase of DJ closely resembled that of CMJ. In a subgroup of subjects making a movement of small amplitude, however, the duration of the push-off phase was shorter, values for moments and mean power output at the knees and ankles were larger, and the mean EMG activity of m. gastrocnemius was higher in DJ than in CMJ. The findings are attributed to the influences of the rapid pre-stretch of knee extensors and plantar flexors after touch-down in DJ. In both subgroups, larger peak resultant reaction forces were found at the knee and ankle joints, and larger peak forces were calculated for the Achilles tendon in DJ than in CMJ.

Key words

Countermovement jump Drop jump Biomechanics Electromyography 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asmussen E, Bonde-Peterson F (1974) Storage of elastic energy in skeletal muscles in man. Acta Physiol Scand 91:385–392Google Scholar
  2. Basmajian JV (1974) Muscles alive; their functions revealed by electromyography. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 23–27Google Scholar
  3. Blattner SE, Noble L (1979) Relative effects of isokinetic and plyometric training on vertical jumping performance. Res Q 50:583–588Google Scholar
  4. Bosco C, Komi PV (1979) Potentiation of the mechanical behavior of the human skeletal muscle through prestretching. Acta Physiol Scand 106:467–472Google Scholar
  5. Bosco C, Komi PV (1980) Influence of aging on the mechanical behavior of leg extensor muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol 45:209–219Google Scholar
  6. Bosco C, Pittera C (1982) Zur Trainingswirkung neuentwickelter Sprungübungen auf die Explosivkraft. Leistungssport 12:36–39Google Scholar
  7. Bosco C, Viitasalo JT, Komi PV, Luthanen P (1982) Combined effect of elastic energy and myoelectrical potentiation during stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 114:557–565Google Scholar
  8. Cavagna GA, Citterio G (1974) Effect of stretching on the elastic characteristics and the contractile component of frog striated muscle. J Physiol 239:1–14Google Scholar
  9. Cavagna GA, Dusman B, Margaria R (1968) Positive work done by a previously stretched muscle. J Appl Physiol 24:21–32Google Scholar
  10. Clutch D, Wilton M, McGown C, Bryce GR (1983) The effect of depth jumps and weight training on leg strength and vertical jump. Res Q exerc Sport 54:5–10Google Scholar
  11. Dempster WT (1955) Space requirements of the seated operator. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (WADCTR 55–159)Google Scholar
  12. Dietz V, Schmidtbleicher D, Noth J (1979) Neuronal mechanisms of human locomotion. J Neurophysiol 42:1212–1222Google Scholar
  13. Dursenev LF, Raevsky LG (1979) Strength training of jumpers. Sov Sports Rev 14:53–55Google Scholar
  14. Elftman H (1939) Forces and energy changes in the leg during walking. Am J Physiol 125:339–356Google Scholar
  15. Gottlieb GL, Agarwal GC (1979) Response to sudden torques about ankle in man: myotatic reflex. J Neurophysiol 42:91–106Google Scholar
  16. Gregoire L, Veeger HE, Huijing PA, Van Ingen Schenau GJ (1984) Role of mono- and biarticular muscles in explosive movements. Int J Sports Med 5:301–305Google Scholar
  17. Hubley CL, Wells RP (1983) A work-energy approach to determine individual joint contributions to vertical jump performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 50:247–254Google Scholar
  18. Komi PV, Bosco C (1978) Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women. Med Sci Sports exerc 10:261–265Google Scholar
  19. Melvill Jones G, Watt DGD (1971) Observations on the control of stepping and hopping movements in man. J Physiol 219:709–727Google Scholar
  20. Miller DI, Nelson RC (1973) Biomechanics of sport. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 39–87Google Scholar
  21. Schmidtbleicher D, Dietz V, Noth J, Antoni M (1978) Auftreten und funktionelle Bedeutung des Muskeldehnungsreflexes bei Lauf- und Sprintbewegungen. Leistungssport 8:480–490Google Scholar
  22. Steben RE, Steben AH (1981) The validity of the stretch — shortening cycle in selected jumping events. J Sports Med 21:28–37Google Scholar
  23. Viitasalo JT, Aura O, HÄkkinen K, Komi PV, Nikula J (1981) Untersuchung von Trainingswirkungen auf die Krafterzeugung und Sprunghöhe. Leistungssport 11:278–281Google Scholar
  24. Wilhelm K (1974) Das Verhalten der menschlichen Achillessehne im Experiment bei statischer und dynamischer Belastung. Res Exp Med 162:281–297Google Scholar
  25. Wilt F (1978) Plyometrics — what it is and how it works. Mod Athlete Coach 16:9–12Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. F. Bobbert
    • 1
  • M. Mackay
    • 1
  • D. Schinkelshoek
    • 1
  • P. A. Huijing
    • 1
  • G. J. van Ingen Schenau
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Functional Anatomy, Interfaculty of Physical EducationFree UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations