Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Supportive interactions, negative interactions, and depressed mood

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Abbey, A., Abramis, D. J., & Caplan, R. D. (1985). Effects of different sources of social support and social conflict on emotional well-being.Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 6, 111–129.

  2. Barrera, M. (1981). Social support in the adjustment of pregnant adolescents: Assessment issues. In B. H. Gottlieb (Ed.),Social networks and social support (pp. 69–96). Beverly Hills: Sage.

  3. Belle, D. (1982). Social ties and social support. In D. Belle (Ed.),Lives in stress: Women and depression (pp. 133–144). Beverly Hills: Sage.

  4. Bolger, N., DeLongis, A., & Kessler, R. C. (1988).The structure of daily stress. Unpublished manuscript, Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.

  5. Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. (1978).Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women. New York: Free Press.

  6. Bradburn, N. M., & Caplovitz, D. (1965).Reports on happiness. Chicago: Aldine.

  7. Cohen, S., & Hoberman, H. M. (1983). Positive events and social supports as buffers of life change stress.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 13, 99–125.

  8. Cohen, S., & Syme, L. S. (Eds.). (1985).Social support and health. New York: Academic Press.

  9. Coyne, J. C., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Going beyond social support: The role of social relationships in adaptation.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psycholgy, 54, 454–460.

  10. Denoff, M. S. (1982). The differentiation of supportive functions among network members: An empirical inquiry.Journal of Social Service Research, 5, 45–59.

  11. Derogatis, L. R. (1977).SCL-90: Administration, scoring, and procedures manual for the revised version. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University.

  12. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being.Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.

  13. Dunkel-Schetter, C. (1984). Social support and cancer: Findings based on patient interviews and their implications.Journal of Social Issues, 40(4) 77–98.

  14. Eckenrode, J., & Gore, S. (1981). Stressful events and social supports: The significance of context. In B. H. Gottlieb (Ed.),Social networks and social support (pp. 43–68). Beverly Hills: Sage.

  15. Fiore, J., Becker, J., & Coppel, D. B. (1983). Social network interactions: A buffer or a stress?American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 423–439.

  16. Gottlieb, B. H. (1985). Social networks and social support: An overview of research, practice, and policy implications.Health Education Quarterly, 12, 5–22.

  17. Henderson, S., Duncan-Jones, P., McAuley, H., & Ritchie, K. (1978). The patient's primary group.British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 74–86.

  18. Henderson, S., Byrne, D., Duncan-Jones, P., Scott, R., & Adcock, S. (1980). Social relationships, adversity, and neurosis: A study of associations in a general population sample.British Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 574–583.

  19. Henderson, S., Byrne, D., Duncan-Jones, P., Adcock, S., Scott, R., & Steele, G. (1978). Social bonds in the epidemiology of neurosis: A preliminary communication.British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 463–466.

  20. Hirsch, B. (1981). Social networks and the coping process. In B. H. Gottlieb (Ed.),Social networks and social support (pp. 149–170). Beverly Hills: Sage.

  21. House, J. S., Landis, K. R., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health: A matter of life and death.Science, 241, 540–545.

  22. House, J. S., Umberson, D., & Landis, K. R. (1988). Structures and processes of social support.Annual Review of Sociology, 14, 293–318.

  23. Jung, J. (1987). Toward a social psychology of social support.Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 8, 57–83.

  24. Kessler, R. C. (1983). Methodological issues in stress research: Design and analysis. In H. B. Kaplan (Ed.),Psychosocial stress: Recent developments in theory and method (pp. 267–342). New York: Academic Press.

  25. Kessler, R. C., & McLeod, J. D. (1984). Sex differences in vulnerability to undesirable life events.American Sociological Review, 49, 620–631.

  26. Kessler, R. C., McLeod, J. D., & Wethington, E. (1985). The costs of caring: A perspective on the relationship between sex and psychological distress. In I. G. Sarason & B. R. Sarason (Eds.),Social support: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 491–507). The Hague: Martinus Nijoff.

  27. Kobasa, S. C. O., & Puccetti, M. C. (1983). Personality and social resources in resistance.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 839–850.

  28. LaRocco, J. M., House, J. S., & French, J. R. P. (1980). Social support, occupational stress and health.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 202–218.

  29. Lehmann, S., Shinn, M., Allen, J., & Simko, P. (1983).Measuring social supports. Paper presented at a meeting of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.

  30. Mattlin, J., Wethington, E., Kessler, R. C. (in press). Situational determinants of coping and coping effectiveness in a general population sample.Journal of Health and Social Behavior.

  31. O'Brien, K., Wortman, C. B., & Joseph, J. G. (1986).Effects of social support on a cohort at risk. Paper presented at a meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

  32. Orden, S. R., & Bradburn, N. M. (1968). Dimensions of marriage happiness.American Journal of Sociology, 73, 715–731.

  33. Pagel, M. D., Erdly, W. W., & Becker, J. (1987). Social networks: We get by with (and in spite of) a little help from our friends.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 793–804.

  34. Pearlin, L. I., Lieberman, M. A., Menaghan, E. G., & Mullan, J. F. (1981). The stress process.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337–356.

  35. Pittman, J. F., & Lloyd, S. A. (1988). Quality of family life, social support, and stress.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 53–67.

  36. Rook, K. S. (1984). The negative side of social interaction: Impact on psychological well-being.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1097–1108.

  37. Rook, K. S., & Pietromonaco, P. (1987). Close relationships: Ties that heal or ties that bind?Advances in Personal Relationships, 1, 1–35.

  38. Rosario, M., Shinn, M., Morch, H., & Huckabee, C. B. (1988). Gender differences in coping and social supports: Testing socialization and role constraint theories.Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 55–69.

  39. Ruehlman, L. S., & Wolchik, S. A. (1988). Personal goals and interpersonal support and hindrance as factors in psychological distress and well-being.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 293–301.

  40. Sandler, I. N., & Barrera, M., Jr. (1984). Toward a multimethod approach to assessing the effects of social support.American Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 37–52.

  41. Shinn, M., Lehmann, S., & Wong, N. W. (1984). Social interaction and social support.Journal of Social Issues, 40(4), 55–76.

  42. Stephens, M. A. P., Kinney, J. M., Ritchie, S. W., & Norris, V. K. (1987). Social networks as assests and liabilities in recovery from stroke by geriatric patients.Psychology and Aging, 2, 125–129.

  43. Turner, R. J., Frankel, G., & Levin, D. M. (1983). Social support: Conceptualization, measurement, and implications for mental health. In J. R. Greenley & R. G. Simmons (Eds.),Research in Community and Mental Health (pp. 67–111). Greenwich: JAI Press.

  44. Veroff, J., Douvan, E., & Kulka, R. (1981).The inner American: A self-portrait from 1957–1976. New York: Basic Books.

  45. Weiss, R. S. (1974). The provisions of social relationships. In Z. Rubin (Ed.),Doing Unto Others (pp. 17–26). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

  46. Wethington, E., & Kessler, R. C. (1986). Perceived support, received support, and ajustment to stressful live events.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 27, 78–89.

  47. Wethington, E., McLeod, J. D., & Kessler, R. C. (1987). The importance of life events for expaining sex differences in psychological distress. In R. C. Barnett, G. K. Baruch, & L. B. Biener (Eds.),Gender and stress ((pp. 144–156). New York: Basic Books

  48. Wills, T. A., Weiss, R. L., & Patterson, G. R. (1974). A behavioral analysis of the determinants of marital satisfaction.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 802–811.

  49. Wong, N. W. (1985/1986). Effects of individual sources of support on well-being in employed parents (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985).Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 2504B.

  50. Wood, V., & Robertson, J. (1978). Friendship and kinship interaction: Differential effect on the morale of the elderly.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 40, 367–373.

  51. Wortman, C. B., & Dunkel-Schetter, C. (1987). Conceptual and methodological issues in the study of social support. In A. Baum & J. E. Singer (Eds.),Handbook of psychology and health: Vol. 5. Stress (pp. 63–108). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

  52. Wortman, C. B., & Lehmann, D. R. (1985). Reactions to victims of life crisis: Support attempts that fail. In I. G. Sarason & B. R. Sarason (Eds.),Social support: Theory, Research, and applications (pp. 463–489). The Hague: Martinus Nijoff.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Tonya L. Schuster or Ronald C. Kessler.

Additional information

This research was sponsored by Grant T32 MH168006, by Research Scientist Development Award 1 K02 MH00507, and by MERIT Award 1 M01 MH16806 from the National Institute of Mental Health. We thank Jean Converse, Jane McLeod, Stanley Presser, Elaine Wethington, and the students of the Detroit Area Study for their assistance in collecting the data. Niall Bolger, Jane McLeod, Elaine Wethington, Camille Wortman, and anonymous reviewers provided helpful comments on an earlier draft.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Schuster, T.L., Kessler, R.C. & Aseltine, R.H. Supportive interactions, negative interactions, and depressed mood. Am J Commun Psychol 18, 423–438 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00938116

Download citation


  • Social Psychology
  • Health Psychology
  • Depressed Mood
  • Negative Interaction
  • Supportive Interaction